Bone Marrow Donation Procedure

Definition of Bone Marrow Donation The withdrawal of bone marrow from a donor for use as a bone marrow transplantation or to harvest blood stem cells, usually as treatments for leukemia, lymphoma, some other cancers, and severe forms of anemia. Bone marrow donation may be autologous (donated for reimplantation into the donor) or allogeneic (donated for another person to receive as a […]

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Bone Marrow Transplantation – Definition and Risks

Definition of Bone Marrow Transplant Bone marrow transplantation is a therapeutic procedure to replace the blood stem cells, the functional component of bone marrow, with healthy donor blood stem cells. Typically the preparation process for the bone marrow removes T-cells and sometimes other leukocytes (white blood cells) to lower the likelihood of antigen response in the recipient. Common reasons for bone marrow transplantation […]

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Clotting Factors – Definition, Names and List

Definition of Clotting Factors Proteins in the blood that are essential for coagulation. Clotting factors circulate in the blood as inert proteins until the coagulation cascade initiates their conversion into participants in blood clotting. Clotting factors interact with each other as well as other enzymes in the blood, notably fibrin and thrombin, to form blood […]

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Coagulation Cascade – Blood Process

Definition of Coagulation Cascade Coagulation – the process, also called the coagulation cascade, through which the blood forms clots. The cells responsible for forming clots are platelets, which interact with each other, collagen, proteins, and other substances in the blood. Specialized proteins in the blood, called clotting factors, activate in cascades, with one activation leading to another in […]

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Erythropoietin (EPO) – Definition, Side Effects

Definition of Erythropoietin (EPO) A hormone the kidneys produce that stimulates the bone marrow to increase red blood cell production. Erythropoietin is a protein structure called a cytokine. Specialized cells in the renal cortex, called peritubular fibroblasts, respond to the amount of oxygen in the blood as it passes through the kidney. When the oxygen […]

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Hemapheresis – Apheresis – Definition and Information

Definition of Hemapheresis The process of withdrawing blood from the body, filtering it through a machine called a cell separator to extract a desired blood component, and returning the rest of the blood to the person. There are two forms, therapeutic and donor. Therapeutic hemapheresis, also called apheresis, removes damaged or defective components from the […]

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Hematopoiesis Definition – Pluripotency, Differentiation, and Proliferation

Definition of Hematopoiesis The process through which the body generates new blood cells. In the adult, the red bone marrow and the lymph tissues (primarily the lymph nodes and the spleen) manufacture the blood cells the body needs, with extramedullary resources for erythrocyte production available as reserves from the liver, spleen (erythrocytes), and yellow bone marrow. Researchers […]

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Lymphadenopathy Definition

Definition of Lymphadenopathy Swelling and enlargement of the lymph nodes. Lymphadenopathy indicates that the affected lymph nodes are fighting an infection in nearby tissues, and the enlargement is most often benign and normal. A common manifestation of lymphadenopathy is swollen lymph nodes in the neck when a person has a sore throat, or under the […]

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Phagocytosis – Definition and Information

Definition of Phagocytosis Phagocytosis – the process through which a phagocyte (a specialized leukocyte) consumes a pathogen or other cellular particle. Phagocytosis is a key defense mechanism of the body’s immune response and may take place in the blood, primarily the domain of granulocytes (neutrophils and eosinophils), and in the tissues, primarily the realm of tissue-based monocytes (macrophages). When a pathogen […]

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Phlebotomy – Definition and Risks

Definition of Phlebotomy The clinical term for puncturing a vein with a sterile needle to withdraw blood. Phlebotomy may be diagnostic, such as when drawing blood for diagnostic blood tests, or therapeutic, such as a treatment for hemochromatosis. Phlebotomy may be mildly uncomfortable, as the needle may sting as it penetrates the skin and the […]

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