Oncogenes and cancer – Protooncogenes vs Oncogenes

Definition of Oncogenes Oncogenes – mutated proto-oncognes that abnormally infuence the rate of growth of cells. Researchers believe oncogenes play a role in the development of cancer by altering cellular growth through one or more mechanisms. Oncogenes may accelerate cell division, block apoptosis (planned cell death), or in other ways allow cells to grow beyond the boundaries […]

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Recurrence Cancer – Definition and Information

Definition of Recurrence Cancer Cancer that returns after treatment. The cancer may come back to its original site or appear in another part of the body. Recurrence cancer that spreads to multiple sites is metastatic. Treatment for recurrent cancer depends on the type of cancer, its location, and the treatment for the original cancer. Recurrent […]

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Remission Cancer – Definition and Information

Definition of Remission Cancer The period of time during which a person in treatment for cancer is free from symptoms though the cancer may still be in the body. In complete remission all symptoms disappear; in partial remission some or most symptoms go away. Remission is generally the result, or may be the goal, of radiation […]

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Tumor Markers – Definition and Types

Definition of Tumor Markers Molecules, often proteins, cancer cells and some other cells produce. Tumor molecules appear in the blood or in the urine, which makes it possible to measure their concentrations. Elevated levels of certain tumor markers indicate the need for further evaluation to determine whether a cancer is present. However, most tumor markers […]

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Adenoma to Carcinoma Transition – Definition and Information

Definition of Adenoma to Carcinoma Transition The changes that take place in an adenoma, a benign (noncancerous) tumor, as it transforms into an adenocarcinoma, a malignant (cancerous) tumor. The transition to cancer can occur with any adenoma though is most common with adenomas of the colon (intestinal polyps, also called adenomatous polyps). Only a small percentage […]

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Tumor suppressor genes – definition and types

Definition of Tumor Suppressor Gene Genes that stop cell growth, preventing tumor development. In health, tumor suppressor genes direct the production of proteins to block cell division when there are abnormalities in the cell, such as DNA damage. When mutated, tumor suppressor genes lose the ability to influence cell division. Cells may then proliferate without […]

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Angiogenesis Inhibitor Drugs – Definition and Information

Definition of Angiogenesis Inhibitor Drugs Substances that stop tumors from developing new blood vessels to support their survival. Numerous proteins and enzymes in the body function to encourage or suppress the growth of new blood vessels. Cancerous tumors are among the tissues that produce proteins that foster new blood vessel growth; these blood vessels then […]

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BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 Genes (Breast Cancer) – Definition and Information

Definition of Breast Cancer Genes Breast cancer gene 1 and breast cancer gene 2, the first genes in which researchers identified mutations that correlate to increased susceptibility to breast cancer and ovarian cancer. About one in six women who have either of these cancers have mutations in either or both of the genes. Many are women […]

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CA-125 – Cancer Antigen (Tumor and Blood) – Definition

Definition of Tumor Maker CA-125 Cancer antigen 125, a protein often elevated in the blood circulation when certain cancers are growing in the body. The cells of the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes produce CA-125; consequently Cancer antigen 125 levels rise in ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterus), and cervical cancer. The most pronounced elevation occurs with ovarian cancer. However, numerous factors other than cancer […]

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Cancer vaccines (preventive therapies)

Cancer Prevention Vaccines Preventive therapies to keep cancer from developing in people who do not have it or to keep cancer from growing or recurring in people who have it. Most cancer vaccines remain in clinical trials. Two approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are those for hepatitis b virus (HBV), the […]

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