Hormone – Driven Cancers – Information, Risk Factors, Treatment

Definition of Hormonal Cancer Types of cancer that thrive on or require hormones for their survival. In men, androgens (notably testosterone) sustain prostate cancer. in women, estrogens and progesterone feed many types of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterus). Hormone-driven cancers Arise in cells that are hormone dependent. However, researchers do not know whether hormones cause these cancers […]

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Hyperplasia, Endometrial hyperplasia, cells and cancer

Definition of Hyperplasia, Risk Factor Hyperplasia – overgrowth of cells. Hyperplasia, also called hypertrophy, may occur for various reasons. Though the overgrowth of tissue may cause symptoms it is not necessarily cancerous. For example, benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) is common in men over age 65 and commonly causes symptoms such as difficult urination. Endometrial hyperplasia is similarly common in […]

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Metastasis – Definition, Treatment and Cancer

Definition of Metastasis Cancer that spreads beyond its site of its origin. Metastasis may be local (extend outside the original tumor but remain near the original site), regional (remain in the general vicinity of the original site), or distant (in organs or tissues elsewhere in the body from the original site). It may occur as […]

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Molecularly Targeted Therapies and Cancer Treatment

Definition of Molecularly Targeted Therapy Treatment approaches for cancer that interfere with specific molecular functions within cancer cells to prevent them from dividing. The most significant benefit of molecularly targeted therapies is that they can selectively alter the function of specific cancer cells without affecting the function of normal cells. They do so primarily by […]

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Oncogenes and cancer – Protooncogenes vs Oncogenes

Definition of Oncogenes Oncogenes – mutated proto-oncognes that abnormally infuence the rate of growth of cells. Researchers believe oncogenes play a role in the development of cancer by altering cellular growth through one or more mechanisms. Oncogenes may accelerate cell division, block apoptosis (planned cell death), or in other ways allow cells to grow beyond the boundaries […]

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Recurrence Cancer – Definition and Information

Definition of Recurrence Cancer Cancer that returns after treatment. The cancer may come back to its original site or appear in another part of the body. Recurrence cancer that spreads to multiple sites is metastatic. Treatment for recurrent cancer depends on the type of cancer, its location, and the treatment for the original cancer. Recurrent […]

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Remission Cancer – Definition and Information

Definition of Remission Cancer The period of time during which a person in treatment for cancer is free from symptoms though the cancer may still be in the body. In complete remission all symptoms disappear; in partial remission some or most symptoms go away. Remission is generally the result, or may be the goal, of radiation […]

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Tumor Markers – Definition and Types

Definition of Tumor Markers Molecules, often proteins, cancer cells and some other cells produce. Tumor molecules appear in the blood or in the urine, which makes it possible to measure their concentrations. Elevated levels of certain tumor markers indicate the need for further evaluation to determine whether a cancer is present. However, most tumor markers […]

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Adenoma to Carcinoma Transition – Definition and Information

Definition of Adenoma to Carcinoma Transition The changes that take place in an adenoma, a benign (noncancerous) tumor, as it transforms into an adenocarcinoma, a malignant (cancerous) tumor. The transition to cancer can occur with any adenoma though is most common with adenomas of the colon (intestinal polyps, also called adenomatous polyps). Only a small percentage […]

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Tumor suppressor genes – definition and types

Definition of Tumor Suppressor Gene Genes that stop cell growth, preventing tumor development. In health, tumor suppressor genes direct the production of proteins to block cell division when there are abnormalities in the cell, such as DNA damage. When mutated, tumor suppressor genes lose the ability to influence cell division. Cells may then proliferate without […]

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