Carcinogen – substance that can cause cancer

Carcinogen definition Carcinogen substance is a substance that can cause cancer. The most common carcinogen is cigarette smoke, which is implicated in nearly all types of cancer and most specifically LUNG CANCER, BREAST CANCER, PROSTATE CANCER, pharyngeal cancer, STOMACH CANCER, and COLORECTAL CANCER. Other significant carcinogens include radon, a naturally occurring gas that results from the deterioration of naturally […]

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Chemotherapy treatment, risk, side effects and cancer

Treatment for cancer that uses cytotoxic drugs (drugs that destroy cells) to kill cancer cells. About half of people who have cancer receive chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is commonly the treatment of first choice for LEUKEMIA, lymphoma, MULTIPLE MYELOMA, metastatic cancers, inoperable cancers, and as adjuvant therapy following or accompanying another method, such as surgery, that is the primary […]

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Hormone-driven cancers – information, risk factors, treatment

What is hormonal cancer Types of cancer that thrive on or require hormones for their survival. In men, ANDROGENS (notably TESTOSTERONE) sustain PROSTATE CANCER. In women, ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE feed many types of BREAST CANCER, OVARIAN CANCER, and ENDOMETRIAL CANCER (cancer of the UTERUS). Hormone-driven cancers Arise in cells that are HORMONE dependent. However, researchers do not know whether hormones cause these cancers […]

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Hyperplasia, Endometrial hyperplasia, cells and cancer

Hyperplasia definition, risk factor Hyperplasia – overgrowth of cells. Hyperplasia, also called hypertrophy, may occur for various reasons.Though the overgrowth of tissue may cause symptoms it is not necessarily cancerous. For example, BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) is common in men over age 65 and commonly causes symptoms such as difficult URINATION. Endometrial hyperplasia is similarly common in women approaching MENOPAUSE, […]

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Metastasis – treatment and cancer

Metastasis definition Cancer that spreads beyond its site of its origin. Metastasis may be local (extend outside the original tumor but remain near the original site), regional (remain in the general vicinity of the original site), or distant (in organs or tissues elsewhere in the body from the original site). It may occur as a […]

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Molecularly targeted therapies and cancer treatment

Definition of molecularly targeted therapy Treatment approaches for cancer that interfere with specific molecular functions within cancer cells to prevent them from dividing. The most significant benefit of molecularly targeted therapies is that they can selectively alter the function of specific cancer cells without affecting the function of normal cells. They do so primarily by […]

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Oncogenes and cancer – Protooncogenes vs Oncogenes

Oncogenes definition Oncogenes – mutated proto-oncognes that abnormally infuence the rate of growth of cells. Researchers believe oncogenes play a role in the development of cancer by altering cellular growth through one or more mechanisms. Oncogenes may accelerate cell division, block APOPTOSIS (planned cell death), or in other ways allow cells to grow beyond the boundaries of the […]

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Recurrence cancer

Recurrence cancer definition Cancer that returns after treatment. The cancer may come back to its original site or appear in another part of the body. Recurrence cancer that spreads to multiple sites is metastatic. Treatment for recurrent cancer depends on the type of cancer, its location, and the treatment for the original cancer. Recurrent cancer […]

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Remission cancer

Remission cancer definition The period of time during which a person in treatment for cancer is free from symptoms though the cancer may still be in the body. In complete remission all symptoms disappear; in partial remission some or most symptoms go away. Remission is generally the result, or may be the goal, of RADIATION THERAPY or CHEMOTHERAPY. […]

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Tumor markers – definition and types

What are tumor markers – definition Molecules, often proteins, cancer cells and some other cells produce. Tumor molecules appear in the BLOOD or in the URINE, which makes it possible to measure their concentrations. Elevated levels of certain tumor markers indicate the need for further evaluation to determine whether a cancer is present. However, most tumor […]

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