Ergonomics also evaluates the movements and actions of commonly performed tasks to minimize the risk of overuse to recommend improved methods and techniques. Many job tasks have evolved without formalized attention to the movements they require, with the consequence that employees develop habits for performing the tasks that may not be ergonomically sound. Actions that cause continual reaching across the body, for example, create repetitive stress for the shoulders, back, and neck. Changing the pattern of movement to use the other hand or rearranging the work area to eliminate cross-reaching can significantly reduce this stress and its corresponding injuries. An improved method might be as simple as using a footstool or sliding ladder instead of reaching for items on shelves, or could require retraining employees in proper use of equipment and machinery.
|ERGONOMICS-RELATED HEALTH CONDITIONS|
|Health Condition||Common Tasks||Remedies|
|CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME||typing, keyboarding, production line, retail scanner||proper technique, ergonomically designed keyboard, frequent movement to stretch fingers and rotate wrists|
|EYE STRAIN||computer work, watching security monitors, reading, inadequate or inappropriate lighting||eyeglasses to accommodate midrange vision, frequent looking away from task to change focal distance, proper lighting|
|HEADACHE||noise exposure, bright lights||improved ventilation and airflow|
|low BACK PAIN||twisting, bending, lifting, extensive walking, prolonged standing||frequent stretching and position changes, proper lift and carry techniques, supportive shoes, shock-absorbent flooring|
|neck PAIN||holding telephone between chin and shoulder, looking at computer or video monitor, frequently turning head||headset, correct height and distance placement for monitor, rearrange workspace to minimize turning|
|ROTATOR CUFF IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME||reaching, production line, throwing||reorganize work area to minimize turning, frequent stretching and resting|
Ergonomic factors account for about 4 million injuries among Americans each year, about half of which are serious enough to require medical care or limit participation in daily activities. Ergonomic injuries further account for a third of lost work time. Most of these injuries are musculoskeletal. The US Occupational Health and Safety Agency (OSHA) develops and administers guidelines for ergonomic standards and improvements in the workplace. Though implemented changes to improve the ergonomics of job tasks can prevent future injuries, people who have already experienced ergonomic-related injuries may have longterm or permanent health consequences.
See also ACCIDENTAL INJURIES; OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY; REPETITIVE MOTION INJURIES.