Scleritis – Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Scleritis Inflammation of the sclera, the white fibrous outer layer of the eye. The inflammation develops gradually, involving the connective tissue structure of the sclera. The scleritis may involve a small portion of the sclera (sectoral scleritis) or the entire globe of the eye (diffuse scleritis). Some people develop nodules that may become necrotic (cause tissue […]

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Cataract – Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Cataract Cloudiness and discoloration of the lens. Cataracts become increasingly common with advancing age, affecting half of all people age 80 and older. Cataracts were once a leading cause of age-related blindness. Today ophthalmologists surgically remove cataracts and replace the lens with a prosthetic intraocular lens (IOL) that restores vision. Cataracts result from protein […]

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Floaters – Fragments of Inner Eye Material

Floaters Definition Fragments of inner eye material that float through the vitreous humor, casting shadows against the retina as entering light strikes them. Floaters may take various shapes and sizes, and typically move around the visual field, changing position with blinking or eye movement. Most are harmless, though large fragments may interfere with vision. Holding the eye still may allow the […]

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Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

Definition of Optic Nerve Hypoplasia Optic Nerve Hypoplasia is a congenital condition in which the optic nerve fails to develop completely in the unborn child. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the third leading cause of congenital vision loss in the United States. The defect is random and may affect one eye or, more commonly, both eyes. Children who have optic nerve […]

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Strabismus (tropia) – Causes, Treatment and Surgery

Definition of Strabismus Strabismus (tropia) is a condition, also called tropia, in which the eyes do not focus simultaneously on the same object. One eye may turn inward (“crosseye” or esotropia), or one eye may turn outward (“walleye” or exotropia). Congenital strabismus may occur with retinoblastoma or retinopathy of prematurity and becomes apparent in the first few months after birth. Most strabismus […]

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Chalazion Eye – Treatment and Surgery

Definition of Chalazion Eye Chalazion eye – a painless, hard nodule that arises from a gland (meibomian or sebaceous) along the edge of the eyelid, the result of glandular secretions that granulate. A chalazion may extend deep into the structure of the eyelid. A chalazion sometimes forms at the site of a recurrent hordeolum (an infected eyelid […]

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Glaucoma – eye disease

Glaucoma Definition Glaucoma is a serious and progressive eye condition in which the cells at the front of the optic nerve where it intersects with the retina, the retinal ganglia, die, resulting in vision loss. Early diagnosis and treatment can minimize vision loss. Health experts estimate that 5 million Americans have glaucoma, though only about 2 million of them know […]

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Orbital Cellulitis and Treatment

Orbital Cellulitis Definition Orbital Cellulitis – inflammation and swelling of the tissues surrounding the eye, including the eyelids. Orbital cellulitis requires emergency medical attention. Delayed treatment can result in permanent vision loss. Causes of Orbital Cellulitis The most common causes of Orbital Cellulitis are infections that affect the eyelids such as hordeolum and blepharitis, dacryocystitis (infected tear duct), and infections of adjacent structures […]

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Toxic Optic Neuropathy – symptoms and treatment

Definition of Toxic Optic Neuropathy Toxic Optic Neuropathy – damage to the optic nerve, retina, and other structures of the eye as a side effect of medications or exposure to environmental or systemic toxins. Many substances can harm vision, and any substance that is a neurotoxin (damaging to the nervous system) has the potential to damage the optic nerve. Long-term […]

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