Hemorrhoids – symptoms and treatment

Hemorrhoids Definition Veins and related structures in and around the ANUS that distend and swell. Hemorrhoids can be internal or external. An old term for hemorrhoids that remains in common use is piles, a reference to the appearance of external hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids alone do not cause symptoms; about two thirds of adults in the United States have hemorrhoids. […]

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Sitz Bath – definition and hemorrhoids

Sitz Bath Definition A small basin designed to accommodate the perineal and rectal areas, with the water level only to the hips. Numerous commercial products are available for ease of use at home. Placing a shallow amount of water in the regular bathtub accomplishes the same objective, which is to soothe irritated tissues caused by, for […]

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Hepatic Abscess – symptoms and treatment

Hepatic Abscess Definition Hepatic Abscess is a pocket of INFECTION that develops within the LIVER, also called liver ABSCESS. Though not common, hepatic abscesses can develop as a complication of GALLBLADDER DISEASE in which infection spreads through the BILE DUCTS to the liver. Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN (often focused in the upper left quadrant), tenderness and rigidity, and FEVER. A person with a hepatic abscess often […]

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Small Bowel Transplantation

Small Bowel Transplant Definition A replacement of a diseased SMALL INTESTINE with a cadaver donor small intestine. Small bowel transplantation is a final treatment option for SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME or other circumstances in which there is total loss of small intestine structure or function. The gastroenterologist may consider small bowel transplantation when all other treatments, including total PARENTERAL NUTRITION, have […]

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Hepatotoxins definition

Hepatotoxins Definition Hepatotoxins – substances that damage the LIVER. A key role of the liver is to metabolize chemicals that it filters from the BLOOD. In the case of medications, this releases the therapeutic components into the bloodstream and channels the waste byproducts for appropriate elimination. Often the chemical interactions of these metabolic processes generate substances that poison […]

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Steatohepatitis – fatty liver – definition

Steatohepatitis Definition Fatty deposits throughout the LIVER, also called fatty liver, that create irritation and INFLAMMATION. Doctors believe steatohepatitis represents a malfunction of the body’s lipid processing and transfer mechanisms, many of which take place in the liver. Steatohepatitis is common with long-term ALCOHOL use and ALCOHOLISM (alcoholic steatohepatitis). It also occurs without alcohol involvement (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), notably […]

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Colonoscopy – Preparation, Procedure, Recovery and Risks

Colonoscopy Definition An examination of the COLON (also called bowel or large intestine) to detect and remove INTESTINAL POLYPS, fleshy growths that may become cancerous, and to biopsy or remove small adenocarcinomas (cancerous polyps). Conventional colonoscopy is an endoscopic procedure in which the gastroenterologist inserts a flexible, lighted tube (endoscope or colonoscope) through the ANUS and into the large intestine. […]

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Ileoanal Reservoir – operation

Ileoanal Reservoir Definition Ileoanal Reservoir – an operation to connect the ILEUM, the final segment of the SMALL INTESTINE, directly with the anal canal (a short tract immediately before the ANUS) as an alternative to ILEOSTOMY when it is necessary to remove the entire COLON. The surgery may take place in one OPERATION or, more commonly, in two operations. First the surgeon removes […]

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Steatorrhea – definition and symptoms

What is Steatorrhea and Definition Steatorrhea – excessive excretion of fat in the stool. Steatorrheic stools are often foamy and foulsmelling, and tend to break apart and float in the toilet bowl. Steatorrhea is a symptom of numerous gastrointestinal disorders including MALABSORPTION, CELIAC DISEASE, GALLBLADDER DISEASE, PANCREATITIS, and LIVER disease. Treating the causative condition ends the steatorrhea. See also CONSTIPATION; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; DIARRHEA. […]

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Colostomy surgery – definition of procedure

Colostomy Surgery Procedure Definition Colostomy is a surgically created opening (stoma) through the abdominal wall through which the COLON passes fecal matter, typically accompanying surgery to remove a diseased segment of the colon. Though there are numerous medical reasons for colostomy, among the most common are COLORECTAL CANCER, traumatic injury, and severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD). A colostomy […]

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