Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis definition Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis – a progressive and chronic condition in which segments of the BILE DUCTS become inflamed, causing SCAR tissue (sclerosis) that narrows and stiffens them. The scarring reduces and eventually destroys the ability of the ducts to carry BILE. About 75 percent of people who have primary sclerosing cholangitis also have INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD), suggesting […]

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Anal Fissure – causes, symptoms and treatment

Causes of Anal Fissure and Symptoms Anal Fissure – small tears in the tissue around the ANUS. Anal fissures can be internal or external. They typically are painful and may bleed with bowel movements, resulting in small amounts of bright red BLOOD on the toilet tissue or in the toilet bowl. The most common cause of anal fissure […]

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Esophageal Spasm – symptoms and treatment

Esophageal Spasm Definition Nonfunctional and often painful contractions of the muscles that line the wall of the ESOPHAGUS. The main symptom of esophageal SPASM is difficult and painful swallowing. The spasms may involve only one portion of the esophagus or the entire length of the esophagus. Doctors do not know what causes esophageal spasm, though eating foods […]

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Hirschsprung’s Disease – symptoms and treatment

What is Hirschsprung’s Disease – Definition Hirschsprung’s Disease – a CONGENITAL ANOMALY, also called congenital megacolon, in which the nerves that supply the lower COLON, typically the sigmoid colon and RECTUM, are missing. Nerves to the ANUS and anal sphincter are generally intact. The absence of nerves maintains the muscular wall of the lower colon in a state of perpetual […]

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Proctitis – causes, symptoms and treatment

Definition of Proctitis INFLAMMATION of the RECTUM that may also involve the ANUS. A number of circumstances may cause proctitis, including INFECTION, notably SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES (STDS) such as CHLAMYDIA, GONORRHEA, and GENITAL HERPES inflammatory conditions such as INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD) and DIVERTICULAR DISEASE trauma to the anus and rectum bacterial INFECTION secondary to chronic inflammation or trauma RADIATION THERAPY (radiation proctitis) Symptoms and Treatment […]

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Appendicitis – symptoms, signs, recovery and risks

Appendicitis Definition Appendicitis – INFLAMMATION of the APPENDIX. Because the appendix is so narrow, inflammation can rapidly cause it to swell closed, trapping BACTERIA laden intestinal matter. This sets the stage for INFECTION that can spread to involve nearby structures. Appendicitis is an emergency that requires immediate surgery. Symptoms of Appendicitis The classic symptoms of appendicitis include PAIN in the lower right abdomen NAUSEA, […]

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Esophageal Varices – diagnosis and treatment

Esophageal Varices Definition Enlarged and weakened veins in the walls of the ESOPHAGUS. Esophageal varices result from PORTAL HYPERTENSION, a condition of impaired BLOOD flow into the LIVER, and are potentially life-threatening should they rupture and HEMORRHAGE. Portal hypertension is a common complication of conditions such as CIRRHOSIS and chronic HEPATITIS that cause SCAR tissue to develop within the liver. Esophageal Varices Symptoms […]

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Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Definition Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) – a form of COLORECTAL CANCER predisposed by a mutation in the mlh1 and msh1 genes. These genes direct DNA repair mechanisms, the processes cells follow to correct mistakes that occur when they replicate their DNA codes during cell reproduction, for cells in the mucous membrane […]

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Rapid Gastric Emptying – dumping syndrome

Rapid Gastric Emptying Definition A disorder, also called dumping syndrome, in which food moves from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE incompletely digested, resulting in the small intestine attempting to digest solid food particles.Normally the digestive content that reaches the small intestine is fairly liquefied. The incomplete gastric digestion causes various gastrointestinal symptoms and leads to MALABSORPTION. Rapid gastric […]

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Ascites – definition, causes and liver disease

Definition of Ascites Ascites – the accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is an abnormal condition that often accompanies chronic LIVER disease such as CIRRHOSIS and LIVER DISEASE OF ALCOHOLISM. Ascites sometimes also develops with HEART FAILURE, END-STAGE RENAL FAILURE (ESRF), OVARIAN CANCER, and metastatic cancer that infiltrates abdominal structures. Typically causes little discomfort. Paracentesis, in which […]

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