Antacids – medications – information and side effects

Antacids Medication Definition Antacids are products that neutralize gastric (STOMACH) acid to relieve DYSPEPSIA (heartburn and indigestion). Antacids work by increasing the pH (acid level) of the gastric juices, which reduces the irritation to the stomach tissues. Most antacids contain mineral salts, which are alkaline. Because of their high salt and mineral content, many antacids can […]

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Dyspepsia Definition – symptoms, treatment

Dyspepsia Definition Dyspepsia – the clinical term for indigestion or heartburn. Most people experience dyspepsia as a burning PAIN in the upper abdomen. Some people also experience NAUSEA, VOMITING, and excessive belching. Certain foods or drinks, such as spicy foods or caffeinated beverages, often worsen the discomfort, as do medications such as aspirin and other NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDS) and […]

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Liver Failure – acute / chronic – causes, symptoms and treatment

Liver Failure – Definition The inability of the LIVER to function. Liver failure may be acute (comes on suddenly) or chronic (develops over time). Because the liver has the unique ability to regenerate, the damage it takes to cause liver failure is substantial. Liver failure generally occurs when more than 75 percent of the liver’s hepatocytes, the cells that […]

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Antidiarrheal Medications – drugs – information and complications

Antidiarrheal Medications Definition Medications that relieve DIARRHEA. Antidiarrheal medications work by slowing the activity of the gastrointestinal tract or by absorbing more fluid in the COLON (large intestine). Information about Antidiarrheal Medications Though diarrhea is unpleasant, doctors recommend letting the body restore its balance without medications in most circumstances of acute diarrhea. Acute diarrhea (diarrhea that comes on suddenly) […]

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Endoscopy procedure – risks, types and description

Endoscopy procedure definition The collective term for minimally invasive procedures that allow the doctor to view internal organs and structures using a lighted, flexible scope inserted through a natural body opening or through a small incision. Endoscopy can be diagnostic or therapeutic. Most endoscopic procedures require preparation before the procedure, sedation during the procedure, and supervised […]

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Liver Function Tests

Liver Function Tests Definition Liver Function Tests – a panel of BLOOD tests that measures the levels of ALBUMIN, BILIRUBIN, and certain LIVER enzymes in the blood. More specifically targeted tests further identify the reasons for abnormal results, as the findings may also indicate dysfunctions of other organs. Reasons for Doing This Test Liver function tests provide a general assessment […]

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Antiemetic Medications

Antiemetic Medications Definition Antiemetic Medications are medications that relieve NAUSEA and VOMITING (known clinically as emesis). The most commonly used are anticholinergic medications and antihistamine medications, which suppress the vestibular system mechanisms that cause vomiting. Many antihistamine products are available over the counter. Doctors may recommend or prescribe these medications to treat nausea related to VERTIGO, MÉNIÈRE’S DISEASE, […]

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Enema and definition

Enema Definition Enema – the instillation of fluid into the RECTUM through the ANUS to stimulate a BOWEL MOVEMENT. An enema may relieve CONSTIPATION or be part of the preparation to cleanse the COLON for diagnostic procedures or surgery. Frequent enemas may result in dependence on them for bowel movements. Eating a diet high in fiber helps promote healthy bowel motility to prevent […]

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Liver Hemodialysis – treatment for acute liver failure

Liver Hemodialysis Definition Liver Hemodialysis is a treatment for acute LIVER FAILURE that employs extracorporeal (out-of-thebody) filtration of the BLOOD to remove the toxins the liver otherwise would metabolize. LIVER hemodialysis is currently of limited availability and remains largely an investigational treatment. Two procedures are in use, the extracorporeal liver assist device (ELAD) and the bioartificial liver. Each uses a […]

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Appendectomy surgery – procedure and complications

Appendectomy Surgery Definition Appendectomy is a surgical OPERATION to remove an inflamed or infected APPENDIX. The conventional open procedure involves making an incision two to three inches long in the lower right abdomen. Open appendectomy typically requires two or three days of hospitalization and four to six weeks for full recovery. A laparoscopy appendectomy requires a shorter hospital stay […]

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