Small Bowel Transplantation

Small Bowel Transplant Definition A replacement of a diseased SMALL INTESTINE with a cadaver donor small intestine. Small bowel transplantation is a final treatment option for SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME or other circumstances in which there is total loss of small intestine structure or function. The gastroenterologist may consider small bowel transplantation when all other treatments, including total PARENTERAL NUTRITION, have […]

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Hepatotoxins definition

Hepatotoxins Definition Hepatotoxins – substances that damage the LIVER. A key role of the liver is to metabolize chemicals that it filters from the BLOOD. In the case of medications, this releases the therapeutic components into the bloodstream and channels the waste byproducts for appropriate elimination. Often the chemical interactions of these metabolic processes generate substances that poison […]

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Steatohepatitis – fatty liver – definition

Steatohepatitis Definition Fatty deposits throughout the LIVER, also called fatty liver, that create irritation and INFLAMMATION. Doctors believe steatohepatitis represents a malfunction of the body’s lipid processing and transfer mechanisms, many of which take place in the liver. Steatohepatitis is common with long-term ALCOHOL use and ALCOHOLISM (alcoholic steatohepatitis). It also occurs without alcohol involvement (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), notably […]

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Colonoscopy – Preparation, Procedure, Recovery and Risks

Colonoscopy Definition An examination of the COLON (also called bowel or large intestine) to detect and remove INTESTINAL POLYPS, fleshy growths that may become cancerous, and to biopsy or remove small adenocarcinomas (cancerous polyps). Conventional colonoscopy is an endoscopic procedure in which the gastroenterologist inserts a flexible, lighted tube (endoscope or colonoscope) through the ANUS and into the large intestine. […]

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Ileoanal Reservoir – operation

Ileoanal Reservoir Definition Ileoanal Reservoir – an operation to connect the ILEUM, the final segment of the SMALL INTESTINE, directly with the anal canal (a short tract immediately before the ANUS) as an alternative to ILEOSTOMY when it is necessary to remove the entire COLON. The surgery may take place in one OPERATION or, more commonly, in two operations. First the surgeon removes […]

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Steatorrhea – definition and symptoms

What is Steatorrhea and Definition Steatorrhea – excessive excretion of fat in the stool. Steatorrheic stools are often foamy and foulsmelling, and tend to break apart and float in the toilet bowl. Steatorrhea is a symptom of numerous gastrointestinal disorders including MALABSORPTION, CELIAC DISEASE, GALLBLADDER DISEASE, PANCREATITIS, and LIVER disease. Treating the causative condition ends the steatorrhea. See also CONSTIPATION; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; DIARRHEA. […]

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Colostomy surgery – definition of procedure

Colostomy Surgery Procedure Definition Colostomy is a surgically created opening (stoma) through the abdominal wall through which the COLON passes fecal matter, typically accompanying surgery to remove a diseased segment of the colon. Though there are numerous medical reasons for colostomy, among the most common are COLORECTAL CANCER, traumatic injury, and severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD). A colostomy […]

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Ileostomy surgery

Ileostomy surgery Definition Ileostomy – an OPERATION in which the surgeon brings the end of the ILEUM, the final segment of the SMALL INTESTINE, through the abdominal wall to exit outside the body. A pouch fastens with adhesive to the SKIN around the ileostomal opening, or stoma, to collect digestive waste. The waste is significantly more watery than stool. An ileostomy is […]

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Aging, Gastrointestinal Changes That Occur With

Gastrointestinal Changes of aging The organs and structures of the gastrointestinal system undergo numerous changes as an individual grows older. At birth, the infant’s MOUTH supports sucking and swallowing liquid nourishment. With the eruption of TEETH and the elongation of the head, developmental changes that occur in early childhood, the oral cavity shifts to support chewing […]

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Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

Digital Rectal Examination Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) – direct palpation of the RECTUM in which the doctor inserts a gloved and lubricated finger into the rectum via the ANUS. DRE allows the doctor to feel for abnormal growths within the rectum and, in men, to palpate the PROSTATE GLAND for enlargement and possibly nodules that could suggest PROSTATE […]

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