Ethical Issues in Genetics and Molecular Medicine

Ethical Issues in Genetics and Molecular Medicine – Introduction Ethical Issues in Genetics and Molecular Medicine – the questions and concerns that arise for physicians and individuals in regard to the information GENETIC SCREENING, GENETIC TESTING, and genetic and molecular therapies. Though advances in genetics have produced significant breakthroughs in understanding, diagnosing, and sometimes treating health conditions that […]

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Family Medical Pedigree

Family Medical Pedigree Definition A comprehensive listing of relatives and their medical conditions, including information about diseases that may have genetic foundations.A family medical pedigree looks somewhat like a genealogic family tree, with branched lineage to show family relationships (such as marriage, birth, half-siblings). The family medical pedigree should extend at least three generations and […]

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Gene Therapy – what is and definition

Gene Therapy Definition Treatment methods, most of which remain experimental, that attempt to manipulate genetic structure or gene encoding. GENEtherapy targets either germline (GAMETE) or somatic cells, using vectors to deliver genes within cells. Germline gene therapy aims to prevent a genetic disorder from passing to new generations, while somatic gene therapy targets genetic disorders that […]

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Genetic Counseling – what is and information

Genetic Counseling Definition A multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the risk for specific genetic diseases or CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS.Doctors often recommend genetic counseling for people who have strong family history for GENETIC DISORDERS such as TAY-SACHS DISEASE or HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE and older women who are or who are planning to become pregnant. Obstetricians also will recommend genetic counseling for couples who receive […]

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Genetic Imprinting – what is and definition

Genetic Imprinting Definition The inactivation of certain genes, determined by whether the GENE is maternal (comes from the mother) or paternal (comes from the father). Genetic imprinting, also called genomic imprinting, appears to be another method of controlling genes by requiring one copy of each of certain chromosomes from each parent. INHERITANCE PATTERNS, which establish gene expression […]

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Genetic Predisposition – definition and disease

Genetic Predisposition Definition Genetic Predisposition – the tendency to develop a health condition as a consequence of the interaction between genetics and lifestyle factors. Doctors believe genetic influences underlie many if not all health conditions that develop over time, such as HYPERTENSION (high BLOOD PRESSURE), ATHEROSCLEROSIS, OSTEOARTHRITIS, RENAL FAILURE, LIVER disease, and type 2 DIABETES. An individual’s GENOTYPE establishes genetic […]

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Genetic Screening – what is and definition

Genetic Screening Definition Genetic Screening – procedures that indicate whether an individual has the potential to have a genetic disorder. Among the most commonly performed genetic screening procedures in the United States are prenatal ULTRASOUND and maternal BLOOD levels of multiple biomarkers, such as ALPHA FETOPROTEIN (AFP), during PREGNANCY. These procedures may present suspicious findings though are not precise […]

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Genetic Testing – methods and procedures

Genetic Testing Definition Genetic Testing – methods and procedures to determine the presence of a genetic disorder. The KARYOTYPE, which uses microphotographs to examine and depict an individual’s chromosomes, is one of the more common methods of genetic testing. Other methods include cytogenic analysis, AMNIOCENTESIS, and CHORIONIC VILLI SAMPLING (CVS). Some genetic testing methods are highly sophisticated […]

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Human Genome Project – what is and information

Human Genome Project – Introduction Human Genome Project – a collaborative undertaking among researchers around the world, organized under the joint auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, to identify and map the human GENOME (genetic material that defines the human being). Altogether, more than 20 research centers in the United […]

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Karyotype – definition

Karyotype Definition A pictorial presentation of an individual’s chromosomes, taken from microphotographs (photographs taken through a microscope) and arranged in a numeric sequence that aligns the chromosomes from largest to smallest. This standardized presentation allows the geneticist to analyze an individual’s chromosomal profile. A geneticist can structure a karyotype from any SOMATIC CELL (nonsex cell) in the body. […]

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