Genetic Counseling – Definition and Information

Genetic Counseling Definition A multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the risk for specific genetic diseases or chromosomal disorders.Doctors often recommend genetic counseling for people who have strong family history for genetic disorders such as tay-sachs disease or huntington’s disease and older women who are or who are planning to become pregnant. Obstetricians also will recommend genetic counseling for couples who receive […]

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Genetic Imprinting – Definition and Information

Genetic Imprinting Definition The inactivation of certain genes, determined by whether the gene is maternal (comes from the mother) or paternal (comes from the father). Genetic imprinting, also called genomic imprinting, appears to be another method of controlling genes by requiring one copy of each of certain chromosomes from each parent. Inheritance patterns, which establish gene expression […]

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Genetic Predisposition – Definition and Disease

Genetic Predisposition Definition Genetic Predisposition – the tendency to develop a health condition as a consequence of the interaction between genetics and lifestyle factors. Doctors believe genetic influences underlie many if not all health conditions that develop over time, such as Hypertension (high blood pressure), atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, renal failure, liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. An individual’s genotype establishes genetic […]

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Genetic Screening – Definition and Information

Genetic Screening Definition Genetic Screening – procedures that indicate whether an individual has the potential to have a genetic disorder. Among the most commonly performed genetic screening procedures in the United States are prenatal ultrasound and maternal blood levels of multiple biomarkers, such as alpha fetoprotein (afp), during pregnancy. These procedures may present suspicious findings though are not precise […]

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Genetic Testing – Methods and Procedures

Genetic Testing Definition Genetic Testing – methods and procedures to determine the presence of a genetic disorder. The karyotype, which uses microphotographs to examine and depict an individual’s chromosomes, is one of the more common methods of genetic testing. Other methods include cytogenic analysis, amniocentesis, and chorionic villi sampling (cvs). Some genetic testing methods are highly sophisticated […]

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Human Genome Project – Information

Human Genome Project – Introduction Human Genome Project – a collaborative undertaking among researchers around the world, organized under the joint auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, to identify and map the human genome (genetic material that defines the human being). Altogether, more than 20 research centers in the United […]

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Karyotype – Definition

Karyotype Definition A pictorial presentation of an individual’s chromosomes, taken from microphotographs (photographs taken through a microscope) and arranged in a numeric sequence that aligns the chromosomes from largest to smallest. This standardized presentation allows the geneticist to analyze an individual’s chromosomal profile. A geneticist can structure a karyotype from any somatic cell (nonsex cell) in the body. […]

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Mutation – Definition and Types of Genetic Mutations

Mutation Definition and Forms Mutation – permanent alterations in the allele pairings, or genes, on the chromosomes that pass on to new cells and ultimately to offspring. Mutations are the process through which genetic change takes place. Some mutations are beneficial, some are neutral, and some are harmful. Mutations occur as changes in the gene’s nucleotide sequences. These changes […]

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Phenotype – Definition

Phenotype Definition The outward presentation, or features, of an individual’s genotype (genetic composition). The phenotype is the construction and operation that results from implementation of the genotype, much as a house is the outcome of a building contractor’s implementation of an architect’s blueprints. A phenotype consists of such obvious characteristics as eye color and hair patterns as well as less apparent traits such […]

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Recombinant DNA technology

Recombinant DNA Definition Recombinant DNA – a biotechnology technique that replaces DNA to alter a cell’s function. There are several methods for performing recombination, though all ultimately involve extracting the native DNA from a carrier (called a vector) and replacing it with the desired DNA. Modified bacteria and viruses are common vectors—bacteria because they replicate rapidly, and viruses because they […]

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