Karyotype – Definition

Karyotype Definition A pictorial presentation of an individual’s chromosomes, taken from microphotographs (photographs taken through a microscope) and arranged in a numeric sequence that aligns the chromosomes from largest to smallest. This standardized presentation allows the geneticist to analyze an individual’s chromosomal profile. A geneticist can structure a karyotype from any somatic cell (nonsex cell) in the body. […]

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Mutation – Definition and Types of Genetic Mutations

Mutation Definition and Forms Mutation – permanent alterations in the allele pairings, or genes, on the chromosomes that pass on to new cells and ultimately to offspring. Mutations are the process through which genetic change takes place. Some mutations are beneficial, some are neutral, and some are harmful. Mutations occur as changes in the gene’s nucleotide sequences. These changes […]

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Phenotype – Definition

Phenotype Definition The outward presentation, or features, of an individual’s genotype (genetic composition). The phenotype is the construction and operation that results from implementation of the genotype, much as a house is the outcome of a building contractor’s implementation of an architect’s blueprints. A phenotype consists of such obvious characteristics as eye color and hair patterns as well as less apparent traits such […]

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Recombinant DNA technology

Recombinant DNA Definition Recombinant DNA – a biotechnology technique that replaces DNA to alter a cell’s function. There are several methods for performing recombination, though all ultimately involve extracting the native DNA from a carrier (called a vector) and replacing it with the desired DNA. Modified bacteria and viruses are common vectors—bacteria because they replicate rapidly, and viruses because they […]

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Stem Cell Therapy – Implantation of Stem Cell

Stem Cell Therapy Definition Stem Cell Therapy – implantation of stem cell to become specialized cells for tissue and organ repair or replacement. Though most stem cell therapy applications remain experimental, bone marrow transplantation (also called blood stem cell transplantation) has become a standard of treatment for many cancers affecting the blood and the lymphatic system (leukemias and lymphomas) as well as […]

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Genetics and Molecular Medicine

Genetics and Molecular Medicine Definition Genetics and molecular medicine are the disciplines in health care that focus on genetic encoding and molecular function within the cell as the foundations for health and disease. Many medical researchers believe nearly every component of health—and correspondingly, every presentation of disease—has some degree of genetic involvement and an individual […]

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Cloning of Humans – What is and Definition

Cloning of Humans Definition Cloning – the creation of exact copies of a gene, cell, or entire organism. such exact copies occur naturally when a zygote divides to become identical multiples such as twins or, less commonly, triplets. Manipulated cloning is primarily a research method at present, though scientists use cloning for therapeutic applications in creating recombinant dna products […]

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Ethical Issues in Genetics and Molecular Medicine

Ethical Issues in Genetics and Molecular Medicine – Introduction Ethical Issues in Genetics and Molecular Medicine – the questions and concerns that arise for physicians and individuals in regard to the information genetic screening, genetic testing, and genetic and molecular therapies. Though advances in genetics have produced significant breakthroughs in understanding, diagnosing, and sometimes treating health conditions that […]

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Family Medical Pedigree

Family Medical Pedigree Definition A comprehensive listing of relatives and their medical conditions, including information about diseases that may have genetic foundations.A family medical pedigree looks somewhat like a genealogic family tree, with branched lineage to show family relationships (such as marriage, birth, half-siblings). The family medical pedigree should extend at least three generations and […]

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Gene Therapy – Definition and Information

Gene Therapy Definition Treatment methods, most of which remain experimental, that attempt to manipulate genetic structure or gene encoding. Gene therapy targets either germline (gamete) or somatic cells, using vectors to deliver genes within cells. Germline gene therapy aims to prevent a genetic disorder from passing to new generations, while somatic gene therapy targets genetic disorders […]

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