Aging, effects on immune response

Immune system changes with advancing age At birth the IMMUNE SYSTEM is fairly undeveloped. The infant relies largely on the carryover of maternal immune components for about the first six weeks of its life, while the infant’s body builds its own immune system. By age four months, maternal IMMUNITY wears off and the infant’s immune system is […]

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Passive immunity

What is Passive Immunity and Definition IMMUNITY (protection from INFECTION) that occurs without activation of the IMMUNE RESPONSE. A newborn has passive immunity from the antibodies in his or her mother’s BLOOD at the time of birth and continues to receive limited ANTIBODY protection for the duration of BREASTFEEDING. Passive immunity also occurs when a person receives GAMMAGLOBULIN that contains antibodies present in the […]

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Antihistamine medications – Definition, Application, Risk

What are Antihistamine medications Antihistamine medications are medications that block the action of HISTAMINE, a chemical that acts on the BLOOD vessels during an IMMUNE RESPONSE to allow fluid to flood the tissues. The resulting INFLAMMATION is part of the body’s means of delivering INFECTION-fighting agents to the site (such as T-lymphocytes, CYTOKINES, and antibodies). However, this response is exaggerated in […]

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Psychoneuroimmunology

Psychoneuroimmunology Definition Psychoneuroimmunology – the interrelationships between emotions, neurologic function, and the IMMUNE SYSTEM. In the 1970s researchers discovered receptors for neuropeptides on cells throughout the body, including the immune system. The BRAIN produces neuropeptides, protein-based structures that convey biochemical messages related to cognition (thought and logic) and emotion. Neuropeptides include endorphins and enkephalins, substances connected […]

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Antimitochondrial antibodies

What are Antimitochondrial antibodies Autoantibodies the IMMUNE SYSTEM produces that attack the mitochondria within self cells. Mitochondria are the organelles (functional structures) within a cell that generate the energy the cell needs to carry out its activities. Antimitochondrial antibodies are proteins that bind with antigens (other proteins) on the inner walls of the mitochondria, blocking the ability […]

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Vaccine safety and types of Vaccines

Vaccine Definition Vaccine ia a substance that initiates an IMMUNE RESPONSE to produce antibodies that prevent INFECTION by the particular PATHOGEN. Vaccines contain attenuated live (weakened) or killed pathogens such as viruses or BACTERIA. The antigens of these pathogens activate the body’s immune response, stimulating B-cell lymphocytes to produce antibodies specific to them. Genetic engineering makes it possible to produce large quantities […]

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Corticosteroid medications – side effects and risk

What are Corticosteroid medications Anti-inflammatory medications that suppress INFLAMMATION and other aspects of the IMMUNE RESPONSE. Corticosteroid medications are synthetic variations of the body’s natural HORMONE CORTISOL, which the ADRENAL GLANDS produce. Corticosteroids come in injectable, oral, inhalant, and topical preparations. How These Medications Work Corticosteroid medications work by blocking a number of the pathways in […]

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Leukocyte – Definition, Function, Conditions

Definition of Leukocyte – White Blood Cells A white blood cell, also referred to as a WBC. Leukocytes are the foundation of the body’s immune response and are phagocytic-that is, they have the ability to consume other cells. They circulate in the blood and the lymph as well as reside in tissues throughout the body. There are […]

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Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

What are Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are medications that alter the IMMUNE RESPONSE slow or stop the progression of certain degenerative, AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS. The most common use of DMARDs is to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. DMARDs provide relief from symptoms such as INFLAMMATION and pain, and in many people also reduce the JOINT deformities associated with rheumatoid […]

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Healing Process – what is and definition

Healing Process Definition The processes and mechanisms by which the body repairs itself. Healing represents complex and cascading interactions among various of the body’s systems and mechanisms. Among the first to respond are the COAGULATION cascade, to stop bleeding, and the IMMUNE RESPONSE, which mobilizes T-cell lymphocytes, macrophages, antibodies, the COMPLEMENT CASCADE, and the release of CYTOKINES and PROSTAGLANDINS. Fibroblasts (cells […]

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