Immunodeficiency

What is Immunodeficiency The absence of IMMUNE SYSTEM components essential for proper IMMUNE RESPONSE and protection from INFECTION – may be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in childhood or adulthood). As well, immunodeficiency is a consequence of therapies intended to compromise immune function, such as RADIATION THERAPY, CHEMOTHERAPY, and IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE THERAPY. Congenital Immunodeficiency Congenital immunodeficiency is genetic (the result of a […]

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Peyer’s patches

Peyer’s Patches Definition and Function Small, nodular clusters of lymphoid tissue scattered throughout the mucous membrane lining of the SMALL INTESTINE. Though not encapsulated as are LYMPH NODES, Peyer’s patches are more distinct and organized than other MUCOSA-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE (MALT). Peyer’s patches are elements of GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE (GALT), a subset of MALT. GALT lies beneath the epithelial […]

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Antigen – definition, what are, cancer and antibody

What are Antigens and Definition A molecule that resides on the surface of a cell membrane and is capable of stimulating an IMMUNE RESPONSE. Antigen molecules are either lipoproteins (lipid and protein) or glycolipids (lipid and GLUCOSE). Each cell has numerous antigens that that identify it to the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Cells that belong to the body bear antigens […]

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Immunoglobulin – what is and definition

Immunoglobulin Definition Immunoglobulin is a protein structure the immune system produces. Immunoglobulins are the foundation molecules for the formation of antibodies. Immunoglobulins circulate in the blood. The immunoglobulin’s class designation reflects its molecular structure, which in turn dictates the action of the immunoglobulin. The five major classes of immunoglobulin provide different kinds of antibodies: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the main […]

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Prostaglandins – Definition and Function

Prostaglandins Definition A large family of fast-acting lipid mediators primarily responsible for initiating INFLAMMATION, FEVER, and pain during the IMMUNE RESPONSE. Prostaglandins are also vital for numerous functions throughout the body. Thromboxane, one of the prostaglandins, facilitates PLATELET AGGREGATION to aid COAGULATION (BLOOD clotting). Other prostaglandins facilitate calcium transport to and from cells, the onset and progression of labor during CHILDBIRTH, […]

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Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Antibody Syndrome

Antiphospholipid Antibodies Definition, Syndrome Autoantibodies the IMMUNE SYSTEM produces that attack phospholipids, fatty substances in the cell membranes of BLOOD cells and connective tissue cells. Antiphospholipid antibodies interfere with blood clotting (COAGULATION) and are present in a number of AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS that affect connective tissue, such as RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (affecting the joints) and VASCULITIS (affecting the blood vessels). These antibodies are also present […]

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Inflammation in the body, causes and treatment

Inflammation in the Body – Definition The release of fluid (PLASMA) from the BLOOD vessels into the tissues, facilitating the movement of key immune proteins and other molecules to the site of injury or INFECTION. Inflammation is the mechanism of the IMMUNE RESPONSE for containing and mitigating whatever damage has occurred. PROSTAGLANDINS, which mast cells release, are the […]

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T-cell Lymphocytes – Definition and Function

T-cell Lymphocytes Definition and Function The type of white BLOOD cell (LEUKOCYTE) responsible for CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. T-cell lymphocytes come to maturity in the THYMUS during childhood, which is why they are called T-cells. During the maturation process, T-cell lymphocytes “learn” how to recognize self and nonself antigens so they can distinguish between cells that belong to the body […]

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B-cell lymphocyte – definition

What is B-cell lymphocyte and Definition A type of white blood cell (LEUKOCYTE) responsible for ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY (also called humoral immunity). B-cell lymphocytes are so named because they come to maturity in the BONE MARROW (in contrast to T-cell lymphocytes, which come to maturity in the THYMUS). B-cell lymphocytes produce antibodies in reaction to the presence of antigens. […]

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Interferons alpha/beta and Cancer Treatment

What is Interferons and Definition CYTOKINES (molecules on the surface of cell membranes that direct cell activity) that block the activity of viruses and mediate numerous aspects of the IMMUNE RESPONSE. There are more than a dozen type 1 interferons, the most abundant of which are interferon-alpha and interferon-beta. B-cell lymphocytes and T-cell lymphocytes produce type 1 interferons, […]

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