B-cell lymphocyte – definition

What is B-cell lymphocyte and Definition A type of white blood cell (LEUKOCYTE) responsible for ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY (also called humoral immunity). B-cell lymphocytes are so named because they come to maturity in the BONE MARROW (in contrast to T-cell lymphocytes, which come to maturity in the THYMUS). B-cell lymphocytes produce antibodies in reaction to the presence of antigens. […]

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Interferons alpha/beta and Cancer Treatment

What is Interferons and Definition CYTOKINES (molecules on the surface of cell membranes that direct cell activity) that block the activity of viruses and mediate numerous aspects of the IMMUNE RESPONSE. There are more than a dozen type 1 interferons, the most abundant of which are interferon-alpha and interferon-beta. B-cell lymphocytes and T-cell lymphocytes produce type 1 interferons, […]

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Transforming growth factors (TGF)

Transforming Growth Factors Definition CYTOKINES in the BLOOD circulation that attach to the surfaces of cell membranes. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) stimulates the cells to grow, divide, and differentiate (cell proliferation). Lymphocytes and macrophages produce TGF-alpha. TGF-beta stimulates interleukin 1 (IL-1) production and blocks the response of lymphocytes in the inflammatory process. Lymphocytes, macrophages, and […]

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BALT – bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue

What is BALT – bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) – Loosely organized clusters of LYMPH tissue beneath the epithelium (tissue that forms the mucous lining) of the bronchi (inner airways) in the LUNGS. These clusters of lymph tissue have preventive, protective, and cleanup responsibilities within the IMMUNE RESPONSE. They contain macrophages and dendritic cells, which are phagocytic cells […]

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Interleukins – Definition and function

Interleukins Definition and Types CYTOKINES that influence the growth, proliferation, and activity of leukocytes and other BLOOD cells. Leukocytes produce interleukins. There are 12 major interleukins, identified as interleukin 1 (IL-1) through IL-12. Among those significant to LEUKOCYTE development are IL-3, which influences blood stem cell differentiation into the various types of blood cells; leukocyte differentiation […]

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Tumor necrosis factors (TNF)

Tumor necrosis factors TNF – CYTOKINES that kill tumor cells and participate in the inflammatory response. Leukocytes (white BLOOD cells) produce TNFs under stimulation from INTERLEUKINS. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), also called cachexin or cachectin, is the most active in these processes. Recombinant TNF-alpha is a treatment option for certain types of cancer. The spice turmeric (active […]

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Cell-mediated immunity – Definition, Cells

What is Cell-Mediated Immunity and Definition The protective mechanism through which specialized immune cells, primarily T-cell lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, carry out the IMMUNE RESPONSE to protect the body from intracellular pathogens (diseasecausing entities, such as viruses and parasites, that invade the body’s cells). Cell-mediated immunity encompasses cytotoxic (death of invading cells) and phagocytic (consumption […]

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Leukotrienes – Definition

Leukotrienes Definition Molecules that instigate INFLAMMATION during an IMMUNE RESPONSE. Mast cells secrete leukotrienes in response to stimulation by IMMUNOGLOBULIN E (IgE). Leukotrienes are derived from arachidonic acid, which is the same base source (precursor) as that of PROSTAGLANDINS, the other primary agents of inflammation. The actions of leukotrienes are most apparent in ASTHMA, in which they cause the bronchioles […]

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Vascular-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (VALT)

Vascular-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Definition Loosely collected clusters of LYMPH tissue throughout the inner, mucosal layer of the walls of the BLOOD vessels. Researchers discovered VALT in the late 1990s and remain unsure of its role and functions. There do appear to be correlations between LYMPHOCYTE activity in VALT and cardiovascular conditions such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS, which many […]

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Chemokines – definition and cytokines

What are Chemokines, Definition and Cytokines Proteins, also called chemotactic CYTOKINES, that draw or direct leukocytes to the scene of INFECTION within the body. Macrophages produce chemokines when they encounter foreign cells, instigating an IMMUNE RESPONSE. Some chemokines act as homing signals, marking the foreign cells so responding immune cells can zero in on them. Other send out biochemical “alerts” […]

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