Toxoplasmosis – Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis and Pregnancy

Toxoplasmosis Definition Toxoplasmosis – an illness that results from INFECTION with the PARASITE Toxoplasma gondii. Health experts in the United States estimate that about 60 million Americans are infected with T. gondii, though only a small percentage of them become ill. T. gondii may migrate into body tissues, forming cysts. Domestic cats carry T. gondii; […]

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Giardiasis / Giardia intestinalis – symptoms and treatment

Giardiasis and Giardia Intestinalis Definition An illness resulting from INFECTION with the protozoan Giardia lamblia (also called Giardia intestinalis). Giardia are abundant in fresh water throughout the United States; infection occurs through drinking contaminated water. The PROTOZOA infect the SMALL INTESTINE of humans and animals and can survive for extended periods without a host. The most common […]

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Transmission modes

Transmission Modes Definition The methods by which pathogens spread to cause INFECTION. Common transmission modes include airborne, in which pathogens enter the respiratory tract as particles suspended in the air sexual, in which pathogens enter the body through sexual contact direct contact, in which pathogens enter the body via touch foodborne, in which consumed foods […]

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Human ehrlichiosis

What is Human Ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia Bacteria Human ehrlichiosis – Any of several illnesses resulting from INFECTION with various species of Ehrlichia BACTERIA. Human ehrlichiosis infection spreads via tick bites. The tick species and the Ehrlichia species vary by geographic region. Ehrlichia bacteria infect white BLOOD cells. The two main forms of human ehrlichiosis in the United States are human granulocytic […]

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Trichomoniasis – Symptoms and Treatment

Trichomoniasis Definition A sexually transmitted disease (STD) resulting from INFECTION with the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Though trichomoniasis affects men and women equally, women are more likely to show symptoms. About two thirds of men and half of women who have trichomoniasis do not have symptoms, though they are nonetheless able to spread the infection through […]

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Incubation period

Incubation Period Definition Incubation period is the length of time between the exposure to a PATHOGEN and the appearance of symptoms or illness. Incubation periods vary from a few hours (illnesses such as CHOLERA and SHIGELLOSIS) to months (illnesses such as HEPATITIS C, TUBERCULOSIS, and AMEBIASIS). Some diseases, such as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV), may have incubation periods […]

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Virus (infection) – Definition and Immune system

What is a Virus – Definition Virus – an infectious PATHOGEN that must invade a host cell to replicate, technically called an obligate intracellular PARASITE. A virus is a particle of living material that contains an inner core of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), called the genome, encased in an outer shell of protein, called a capsid. Some viruses contain a […]

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Infection – Definition and Symptoms

What is Infection – Definition Infection – The invasion of the body by a PATHOGEN (microorganism capable of causing disease), sometimes called an infectious agent, that enters cells and attempts to reproduce or replicate itself. The pathogen may be a bacterium, FUNGUS (yeast or mold), VIRUS, PARASITE, or prion. Not all infections cause symptoms or illness, and some infections may be […]

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Amebiasis treatment and symptoms

Amebiasis Definition Amebiasis is a parasitic INFECTION of the gastrointestinal tract. The PARASITE responsible is Entamoeba histolytica, a single-cell organism (an ameba) that enters the body by drinking water or eating food that contains E. histolytica in cyst form. The cyst is a protective encasing within which the ameba may sustain itself in a dormant stage for weeks to […]

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Malaria – symptoms and treatment

Malaria Definition Malaria – An illness that results from INFECTION with one of four Plasmodium parasites: Plasmodium malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. falciparum. Bites from the female Anopheles mosquito spread the infection from one person to another. Though malaria has not occurred naturally in the United States since the 1950s, travel to or immigration from regions […]

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