Bone Density – definition, testing and disolders

What is Bone Density The amount of mineral, primarily calcium, the bones contain that gives them their mass. BONE density is important to give the SKELETON enough structure to support the body. Insufficient bone density results in the bone loss conditions OSTEOPENIA and OSTEOPOROSIS. Numerous hormones participate in maintaining bone density. Among them are estrogen, TESTOSTERONE, CALCITONIN, vitamin […]

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Dystonia disease – treatment and botulinum therapy

Extended contractions of the muscles that hold the body in unnatural postures. Dystonia may occur as a primary disorder of movement, typically a hereditary disorder, or as an undesired SIDE EFFECT of certain medications to treat PARKINSON’S DISEASE, PSYCHOSIS, SCHIZOPHRENIA, and SEIZURE DISORDERS that affect DOPAMINE binding in the BRAIN. Dopamine is a key NEUROTRANSMITTER […]

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Ligament – definition, function, injury and treatment

Ligament is a cordlike structure of tough connective tissue that binds bones together at joints. Ligaments are vulnerable to injury from stretching, which can cause them to tear. Such a ligament injury is a sprain. Most sprains heal with conservative treatment, though some (notably complete tears) require surgery to repair them. Ligaments may also join or […]

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Osteomalacia – definition, symptoms and treatment

Osteomalacia is softening of the bones that most often occurs as a result of vitamin D deficiency or abnormalities in vitamin D METABOLISM that prevent mineral crystals from accumulating in the BONE tissue. Vitamin D is essential to bone remodeling and the bone’s ability to draw calcium and other minerals from the BLOOD circulation. Osteomalacia develops when there is insufficient […]

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RICE – Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation

RICE – The acronym for rest, ice, compression, and elevation. RICE is the common first-line therapeutic approach for most musculoskeletal injuries such as SPRAINS AND STRAINS. Rest removes the injured part from the source of the injury. Ice slows the process of INFLAMMATION and eases PAIN. Compression, such as a wrap or brace, provides support so the muscles […]

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Torticollis – wryneck – definition, causes, diagnosis and treatment

What is Torticollis – Wryneck  and Definition Torticollis – wryneck is Extended contraction of the muscles in the neck, pulling the head down and to the side. Torticollis, also called wryneck, may be present at birth or acquired. Acquired torticollis may develop after injury to the nerves or muscles of the neck though sometimes the doctor […]

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Epicondylitis – Tennis elbow – diagnosis and treatment

Epicondylitis (Tennis elbow) – INFLAMMATION of the TENDON at the elbow end of the humerus (long BONE of the upper arm). Epicondylitis may be lateral or medial. Lateral epicondylitis, commonly called tennis elbow, affects the outer side of the elbow (little finger side). Bending the wrist back or applying pressure to the bony projection (the humeral epicondyle) on the outside of the […]

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Lipoma – treatment, removal and surgery

Lipoma is a benign (noncancerous) soft tissue tumor. Lipoma is the most common type of tumor. It arises from adipocytes-fat cells-though can develop in any kind of tissue. Lipomas are particularly common in the MUSCLE, appearing as a small painless lump. A lipoma near the surface of the SKIN feels soft and fairly well defined. Lipoma does not hurt […]

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Osteomyelitis – definition, symptoms and treatment

What is Osteomyelitis and Definition Osteomyelitis – An INFECTION of the BONE. Typically the infection starts elsewhere in the body and spreads through the BLOOD circulation to the bone, though may originate in the bone as a complication of surgery on the bone (such as open reduction of a FRACTURE or JOINT REPLACEMENT). Bacterial infection causes most osteomyelitis, though other pathogens such as fungi […]

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