Cartilage – Definition and Function

Definition of Cartilage Dense connective tissue that provides the foundation for bone in the developing fetus and covers bone ends in the joints in adults. The fetal skeleton forms first as a translucent type of cartilage called hyaline cartilage, with conversion to bone beginning at about the fourth week of pregnancy. Calcification continues after birth. In the adult skeleton, hyaline […]

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Hernia – Types, Symptoms, Treatment, Surgery and Repair

Definition of Hernia Hernia is a separation or tear in the fibers of a muscle that allows the underlying tissue or structure to bulge through. Hernias may occur as a result of congenital weakness or incomplete closure of a channel in the muscle (such as an umbilical or inguinal hernia) or because of injury (unintended or surgical). […]

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Muscular Dystrophy – Types, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Muscular Dystrophy The collective term for a group of genetic disorders of the muscle resulting in progressive weakness. Most types of muscular dystrophy arise from a deficiency of the protein dystrophin, which is essential for skeletal (striated) muscle cell integrity and function. Without it the skeletal muscles deteriorate and movement becomes difficult or impossible. About 50,000 Americans have muscular […]

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Physical Therapy – Definition and Information

Definition of Physical Therapy A therapeutic approach to maintain or improve the biomechanics of the body. Physical therapy employs many modalities (types of treatments) including passive and active range of motion exercises, therapeutic massage, hydrotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, heat and cold, strengthening exercises, flexibility exercises, and balance exercises. In the United States physical therapy requires a doctor’s […]

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Spinal Stenosis – Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Exercises

Definition of Spinal Stenosis and Symptoms Narrowing of the vertebral channel, usually in the lower (lumbar) back, that compresses the spinal cord or the spinal nerve roots. The narrowing may develop as a consequence of osteoarthritic changes, the formation of bone spurs, or a congenital defect in which the vertebral channel is unusually narrow to […]

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