Aging, pulmonary changes that occur with

What is this article about? The LUNGS and tracheobronchial structures undergo few but significant changes over the course of the lifespan. From moments after birth to near the end of life the lungs function continuously and consistently, bringing air into the body to deliver oxygen to the BLOOD and carrying air out of the body […]

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Tracheostomy Procedure – Definition and Complications

Definition of Tracheostomy Procedure Tracheostomy is a surgical opening created in the TRACHEA to allow air to enter the LUNGS, bypassing the upper throat and mouth. A tracheostomy may be temporary or permanent. The doctor may perform a tracheostomy when extensive surgery such as to treat laryngeal CANCERresults in removing the shared structures of the throat that allow air […]

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Auscultation (lung) – Heart and Breath Sounds

Definition of Auscultation Auscultation is the diagnostic procedure of listening to the LUNGS using a STETHOSCOPE held to various placements on the chest and back. Auscultation allows the doctor to hear normal and abnormal BREATH SOUNDS, the noises of air flowing through the respiratory tract. The doctor typically listens to the same location for each lung, to compare the sounds, and […]

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Breathing Exercises – Deep Breathing and Yoga

Definition of Breathing Exercises Breathing exercises are methods to improve lung capacity. Exercises are especially helpful for people who have chronic or progressive lung conditions such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD), BRONCHIECTASIS, and PULMONARY FIBROSIS. The pulmonologist or respiratory therapist may prescribe specific breathing exercises to accommodate an individual’s unique needs and health status. General exercises often recommended include […]

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Bronchoalveolar lavage and Bronchoscopy

Definition of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Bronchoalveolar lavage is a diagnostic procedure that washes cells from the bronchi and alveoli for laboratory examination. The doctor does bronchoalveolar lavage during BRONCHOSCOPY, blocking a small section of the bronchial segment to instill and then withdraw sterile saline. The solution contains cells from the inner lung structures that can provide diagnostic […]

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Bronchoscopy Procedure – Definition

Definition of Bronchoscopy Procedure Bronchoscopy is a diagnostic procedure in which the doctor uses a flexible, lighted endoscope, inserted through the THROAT and into the airways under sedation or ANESTHESIA, to view the TRACHEA, bronchi, and other structures of the respiratory tract. The doctor also can watch the LUNGS in motion, assessing air movement and filling. Bronchoscopy is an […]

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Chest Oercussion and Oostural Drainage

Definition of Chest Oercussion and Oostural Drainage A therapeutic method for loosening and clearing mucus from the LUNGS, used especially in CYSTIC FIBROSIS and BRONCHIECTASIS, when there is ATELECTASIS, and in other pulmonary disorders in which mucus collects and blocks the flow of air. For this treatment, a respiratory therapist or caregiver trained in the method rhythmically claps, with cupped […]

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Lung Transplantation – Surgical Procedure and Complications

Lung Transplantation – Introduction Lung Transplantation is an OPERATION to replace an individual’s diseased lung with a healthy donor lung. Doctors performed the first successful lung transplantation in 1983 and now perform several hundred lung transplantations each year. A lung transplantation may involve one lung or both LUNGS. Less commonly a lung transplantation includes both lungs […]

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Mechanical Ventilation – Information

Definition of Mechanical Ventilation A method for providing assisted respiration to an individual whose LUNGS cannot maintain respiratory support on their own (RESPIRATORY FAILURE). During mechanical ventilation, a machine (the ventilator) rhythmically pushes air into the lungs through an endotracheal tube or TRACHEOSTOMY tube. An endotracheal tube is a flexible plastic tube inserted through the NOSE or MOUTH into […]

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Oxygen Saturation and The Pulse Oximeter

Definition of Oxygen Saturation Oxygen saturation – The percentage of HEMOGLOBIN molecules in the BLOOD that are bound to oxygen molecules.Normal oxygen saturation of the arterial blood is 96 to 98 percent. Saturation significantly below normal, for instance 88 percent, indicates RESPIRATORY FAILURE and may be lifethreatening. Oxygen saturation is an essential measurement for assessing cardiovascular and pulmonary effectiveness. […]

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