Pulmonary edema – symptoms, causes and treatment

Definition of Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary Edema is Abnormal fluid accumulation within the alveoli and the interstitial tissues of the LUNGS, typically resulting from CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD)such as HEART FAILURE or CARDIOMYOPATHY. PNEUMONIA, ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS), smoke inhalation, near drowning, and high altitude can also cause pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema can be a life-threatening condition and requires immediate medical evaluation and […]

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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) – Symptoms and Treatment

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Definition Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a complex of symptoms, formerly called adult respiratory distress syndrome, in which respiratory distress and RESPIRATORY FAILURE develop accompanying severe illness or trauma. ARDS involves the whole of both LUNGS, as the lungs become inflamed and fill with fluid. ARDS may develop as a consequence […]

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Dyspnea – Definition, Causes, Treatment

Definition of Dyspnea Dyspnea – Difficulty BREATHING or shortness of breath. There are numerous causes of dyspnea, most of which relate to cardiovascular or pulmonary disorders. Dyspnea occurs when the body does not receive enough oxygen. As oxygen is the fuel for cellular activity, lack of oxygen means cells cannot function properly. When oxygen insufficiency (HYPOXIA) is systemic […]

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Pulmonary embolism – diagnosis, symptoms and treatment

Definition of Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism – a BLOOD clot that blocks the flow of blood through the main pulmonary ARTERY, the right or left pulmonary artery, or branching arteries within the lobes and segments of the LUNGS. Untreated pulmonary embolism can cause respiratory distress or death; about 30,000 people die each year in the United States as a […]

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Anthracosis (disease) – Definition and Black Lung

Definition of Anthracosis Anthracosis – Black Lung – a lung condition resulting from long-term exposure to coal dust, also called coal worker’s PNEUMONOCONIOSIS (CWP) and black lung disease. There are two types: simple and complicated. In simple anthracosis the coal dust coats the LUNGS in wide distribution, and the IMMUNE RESPONSE encapsulates the dust particles without causing scarring (fibrosis). This is the […]

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Hemoptysis – Definition and Causes

Definition of Hemoptysis Hemoptysis is bleeding from the LUNGS, which typically manifests through BLOOD in the SPUTUM. It is typically frothy and bright red, though can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from blood that might originate in the ESOPHAGUS or STOMACH. Hemoptysis that produces a volume of blood greater than the equivalent of two or three teaspoonfuls is a medical emergency that may represent […]

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Pulmonary Fibrosis – symptoms, diagnostic and treatment

Definition of Pulmonary Fibrosis Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which SCAR tissue replaces normal tissue in the alveoli, reducing the ability of the LUNGS to oxygenate the BLOOD. Many conditions of the lungs result in fibrosis, notably CYSTIC FIBROSIS and occupational PNEUMOCONIOSIS. Pulmonary fibrosis may also be idiopathic-that is, develop without an identifiable cause. Once the process of fibrosis begins in […]

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Apnea – Diagnostic, Causes and Treatment

Definition of Apnea The temporary and involuntary cessation of BREATHING. Apnea may result from neurologic causes (central apnea), mechanical causes (obstructive apnea), or a combination of both. Central apnea is more common in premature infants, whose nervous systems are not fully developed, and the very elderly, whose nervous systems may be failing – is also more common in […]

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Hiccups – Definition, Causes and Treatment

Definition and Causes of Hiccups Hiccups is dysfunctional or out-of-sequence contractions (spasms) of the DIAPHRAGM. It generally occur rhythmically in episodes that typically contain four to several dozen contractions. An individual tends to have a personally consistent pattern. Though doctors know the mechanics of hiccups, no one knows what it causes or what, if any, purpose […]

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Respiratory Failure – Acute/Chronic – Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Respiratory Failure The inability of the LUNGS to diffuse enough oxygen into the bloodstream to meet the body’s needs. Respiratory failure may arise from end-stage pulmonary disease, extensive trauma, severe CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) or crisis (such as HEART ATTACK), neurologic damage or injury (such as SPINAL CORD INJURY, TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY [TBI], STROKE, or neurodegenerative disorder), or severe INFECTION (sepsis). Respiratory failure […]

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