Recombinant DNA Definition
Recombinant DNA – a biotechnology technique that replaces DNA to alter a cell’s function. There are several methods for performing recombination, though all ultimately involve extracting the native DNA from a carrier (called a vector) and replacing it with the desired DNA. Modified BACTERIA and viruses are common vectors—bacteria because they replicate rapidly, and viruses because they can deliver modified DNA into the nucleus of cells within the body (GENE THERAPY).
One of the most significant uses of recombinant DNA technology is the production of substances such as human INSULIN supplementation to treat DIABETES, which recombinant technology can synthesize in vast quantities in the laboratory to meet strict quality and consistency standards. Because such recombinant products are biochemically indistinguishable from their endogenous (naturally produced in the body) counterparts, they are an exact replacement, and the body accepts them as though they were endogenous. Recombinant DNA technology produces other hormones, too, such as HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (HGH) SUPPLEMENT.