Enema and definition

Enema Definition Enema – the instillation of fluid into the rectum through the anus to stimulate a bowel movement. An enema may relieve constipation or be part of the preparation to cleanse the colon for diagnostic procedures or surgery. Frequent enemas may result in dependence on them for bowel movements. Eating a diet high in fiber helps promote healthy bowel motility to prevent […]

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Gastroparesis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Gastroparesis Definition Gastroparesis – slowed function of the stomach that delays the travel of gastric contents into the duodenum. Gastroparesis results from disturbances of or damage to the vagus nerve (the tenth cranial nerve), which carries the nerve impulses that accelerate peristalsis (rhythmic contractions of the gastrointestinal tract). Gastroparesis most commonly occurs after a viral infection though also is a complication […]

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Liver Failure – Acute / Chronic – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Liver Failure – Definition The inability of the liver to function. Liver failure may be acute (comes on suddenly) or chronic (develops over time). Because the liver has the unique ability to regenerate, the damage it takes to cause liver failure is substantial. Liver failure generally occurs when more than 75 percent of the liver’s hepatocytes, the cells that […]

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Rapid Gastric Emptying – Dumping Syndrome

Rapid Gastric Emptying Definition A disorder, also called dumping syndrome, in which food moves from the stomach into the small intestine incompletely digested, resulting in the small intestine attempting to digest solid food particles.Normally the digestive content that reaches the small intestine is fairly liquefied. The incomplete gastric digestion causes various gastrointestinal symptoms and leads to malabsorption. Rapid gastric […]

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Antidiarrheal Medications – Drugs – Information and Complications

Antidiarrheal Medications Definition Medications that relieve diarrhea. Antidiarrheal medications work by slowing the activity of the gastrointestinal tract or by absorbing more fluid in the colon (large intestine). Information about Antidiarrheal Medications Though diarrhea is unpleasant, doctors recommend letting the body restore its balance without medications in most circumstances of acute diarrhea. Acute diarrhea (diarrhea that comes on suddenly) […]

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Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Procedure

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Definition Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) – an endoscopic procedure that allows diagnostic as well as therapeutic procedures involving the duodenum, pancreatic duct, and common bile duct. After administering a sedative the gastroenterologist inserts the flexible, lighted endoscope through the mouth, passing it down the esophagus and through the stomach to the duodenum. While advancing the endoscope the gastroenterologist examines […]

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H2 Antagonist (blocker) Medications

H2 Antagonist (blocker) Medications Definition H2 Antagonist (blocker) Medications – medications that block molecular structures called histamine 2 receptors in the lining of the stomach. Histamines are chemicals called mediators that stimulate specific cells. Cells within the stomach’s lining, called enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, release histamine in response to the digestive hormone gastrin. The histamine binds with H2 […]

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Liver Function Tests

Liver Function Tests Definition Liver Function Tests – a panel of blood tests that measures the levels of albumin, bilirubin, and certain liver enzymes in the blood. More specifically targeted tests further identify the reasons for abnormal results, as the findings may also indicate dysfunctions of other organs. Reasons for Doing This Test Liver function tests provide a general assessment […]

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Rectal Fistula – symptoms and treatment

Rectal Fistula Definition An abnormal opening in the wall of the rectum, often connecting the rectum with another structure such as the urethra (rectourethral fistula), the vagina (rectovaginal fistula), or the anus (anorectal fistula). Rectal fistulas may be congenital or acquired. Congenital fistulas often occur in combination with other congenital anomalies, notably those affecting the HEART such as tetralogy of Fallot (a collective of […]

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Antiemetic Medications

Antiemetic Medications Definition Antiemetic Medications are medications that relieve nausea and vomiting (known clinically as emesis). The most commonly used are anticholinergic medications and antihistamine medications, which suppress the vestibular system mechanisms that cause vomiting. Many antihistamine products are available over the counter. Doctors may recommend or prescribe these medications to treat nausea related to vertigo, ménière’s disease, […]

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