Tuberculosis (Disease) – Symptoms and Treatment

Tuberculosis Definition An illness resulting from infection with the microbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Though tuberculosis most commonly infects the lungs, the disease may involve other organs as well, notably the kidneys. Health experts estimate more than 2 billion people worldwide have active (symptoms are present) or latent (symptoms are not present) tuberculosis. An important characteristic of […]

Read More

Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI)

Definition of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI) Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI) is a very close margin between the concentration in the blood circulation of a drug that is therapeutic and the concentration that is lethal (deadly). Pharmacists generally express the therapeutic index as a ratio between the median effective dose (ED50) and the median lethal dose (LD50). A drug has a narrow therapeutic […]

Read More

Amebiasis Treatment and Symptoms

Amebiasis Definition Amebiasis is a parasitic infection of the gastrointestinal tract. The parasite responsible is Entamoeba histolytica, a single-cell organism (an ameba) that enters the body by drinking water or eating food that contains E. histolytica in cyst form. The cyst is a protective encasing within which the ameba may sustain itself in a dormant stage for weeks to […]

Read More

H2 Antagonist (blocker) Medications

H2 Antagonist (blocker) Medications Definition H2 Antagonist (blocker) Medications – medications that block molecular structures called histamine 2 receptors in the lining of the stomach. Histamines are chemicals called mediators that stimulate specific cells. Cells within the stomach’s lining, called enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, release histamine in response to the digestive hormone gastrin. The histamine binds with H2 […]

Read More

Anthrax Disease – Definition, Symptoms, Treatment

Anthrax Definition An illness resulting from infection with the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is a naturally occurring infection among wild and domestic livestock (such as cows, sheep, goats, and antelope). Anthrax is rare in people in the United States, though more common in people who live, work, or travel to countries where anthrax is more common in livestock. […]

Read More

Hepatotoxins definition

Hepatotoxins Definition Hepatotoxins – substances that damage the liver. A key role of the liver is to metabolize chemicals that it filters from the blood. In the case of medications, this releases the therapeutic components into the bloodstream and channels the waste byproducts for appropriate elimination. Often the chemical interactions of these metabolic processes generate substances that poison […]

Read More

Antibiotic Medications – Definition, List, How Work, Side Effects

Antibiotic Medications Definition Drugs that kill bacteria and certain other microorganisms. Antibiotic medications are the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infection. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are capable of killing numerous types of bacteria; narrowspectrum antibiotics kill specific types or strains of bacteria. There are seven primary classifications of antibiotic medications-aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, macrolides, quinolones (fluorquinolones), penicillins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines-that contain over 100 […]

Read More

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) – Symptoms and Treatment

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Definition Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder in which inflammation develops alongsegments of the gastrointestinal tract. There are two forms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Crohn’s disease can affect any portion of the intestinal tract though most commonly involves the lower small intestine and upper colon. Ulcerative colitis affects the colon including […]

Read More

Antifungal Medications and Treatment

Antifungal Medications Drugs that kill fungi (yeast). Antifungal medications are available for topical or systemic treatment. Some fungal infections require both. Antifungal medications work through various mechanisms to interfere with the ability of fungi to survive or reproduce. Broadspectrum antifungal medications are effective for treating a variety of fungal infections; narrow-spectrum antifungals are effective in […]

Read More

Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) Medications

Proton Pump Inhibitor Definition Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) Medications- medications that suppress gastric acid production in the stomach. Commonly prescribed PPIs available in the United States include esomeprazole (Nexium) lansoprazole (Prevacid) omeprazole (Prilosec) pantoprazole (Protonix) rabeprazole (Aciphex) How These Medications Work Proton Pump Inhibitor work by blocking the enzyme system that causes the parietal cells in the […]

Read More