5ASA / 5-aminosalicylate medications

What are 5ASA / 5-aminosalicylate medications Drugs taken to treat INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD), an autoimmune disorder that causes mild to severe INFLAMMATION and irritation to the COLON (bowel). People who have IBD typically experience alternating periods of exacerbation and REMISSION; in severe IBD the symptoms are often debilitating. The aminosalicylates, or 5ASAs, appear to work by suppressing […]

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Antidiarrheal Medications – drugs – information and complications

Antidiarrheal Medications Definition Medications that relieve DIARRHEA. Antidiarrheal medications work by slowing the activity of the gastrointestinal tract or by absorbing more fluid in the COLON (large intestine). Information about Antidiarrheal Medications Though diarrhea is unpleasant, doctors recommend letting the body restore its balance without medications in most circumstances of acute diarrhea. Acute diarrhea (diarrhea that comes on suddenly) […]

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Antihistamine medications – Definition, Application, Risk

What are Antihistamine medications Antihistamine medications are medications that block the action of HISTAMINE, a chemical that acts on the BLOOD vessels during an IMMUNE RESPONSE to allow fluid to flood the tissues. The resulting INFLAMMATION is part of the body’s means of delivering INFECTION-fighting agents to the site (such as T-lymphocytes, CYTOKINES, and antibodies). However, this response is exaggerated in […]

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Antiemetic Medications

Antiemetic Medications Definition Antiemetic Medications are medications that relieve NAUSEA and VOMITING (known clinically as emesis). The most commonly used are anticholinergic medications and antihistamine medications, which suppress the vestibular system mechanisms that cause vomiting. Many antihistamine products are available over the counter. Doctors may recommend or prescribe these medications to treat nausea related to VERTIGO, MÉNIÈRE’S DISEASE, […]

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Antimitochondrial antibodies

What are Antimitochondrial antibodies Autoantibodies the IMMUNE SYSTEM produces that attack the mitochondria within self cells. Mitochondria are the organelles (functional structures) within a cell that generate the energy the cell needs to carry out its activities. Antimitochondrial antibodies are proteins that bind with antigens (other proteins) on the inner walls of the mitochondria, blocking the ability […]

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Cryptococcosis / Cryptococcus and symptoms

Cryptococcosis – Cryptococcus Definition An illness that results from INFECTION with the FUNGUS Cryptococcus neoformans, which is abundant in soil worldwide. Cryptococcosis may affect the MENINGES (membranes covering the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD), the LUNGS, or the SKIN. Infection is most likely in people who are IMMUNOCOMPROMISED and is a particular risk in those who have HIV/AIDS, Hodgkin’s […]

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Corticosteroid medications – side effects and risk

What are Corticosteroid medications Anti-inflammatory medications that suppress INFLAMMATION and other aspects of the IMMUNE RESPONSE. Corticosteroid medications are synthetic variations of the body’s natural HORMONE CORTISOL, which the ADRENAL GLANDS produce. Corticosteroids come in injectable, oral, inhalant, and topical preparations. How These Medications Work Corticosteroid medications work by blocking a number of the pathways in […]

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Epstein-Barr virus (disease) – symptoms and treatment

Epstein-Barr Virus Definition A member of the herpesvirus family best known for causing the illness infectious mononucleosis. INFECTION with the Epstein-Barr VIRUS, also called human herpesvirus-4 (HHV-4), causes other disease as well and was the first virus researchers linked with cancer (notably Burkitt’s lymphoma). Epstein-Barr virus is ubiquitous; it infects more than 90 percent of […]

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Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

What are Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are medications that alter the IMMUNE RESPONSE slow or stop the progression of certain degenerative, AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS. The most common use of DMARDs is to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS. DMARDs provide relief from symptoms such as INFLAMMATION and pain, and in many people also reduce the JOINT deformities associated with rheumatoid […]

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Genital herpes – symptoms, treatment, causes and spreading

What is Genital Herpes and Definition Genital herpes – a sexually transmitted disease (STD) resulting from INFECTION with herpesvirus, usually HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 (HSV-2). Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), which causes cold sores, may also cause sores in the genital area. Genital herpes is one of the most prevalent STDs in the United States, infecting about 25 percent of […]

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