Blood Type – A, B, 0, AB, ABO – Percentages Among Americans

Definition of Blood Type Blood Type – the pattern of specialized proteins, called agglutinogens or antigens, present on the surface of the red blood cells (erythrocytes). The presence of antigens on the erythrocytes causes the immune system to create oppositional antibodies, which will attack cells bearing the opposing antigens. Antigens and corresponding antibodies begin to develop shortly following birth. […]

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Clotting Factors – Definition, Names and List

Definition of Clotting Factors Proteins in the blood that are essential for coagulation. Clotting factors circulate in the blood as inert proteins until the coagulation cascade initiates their conversion into participants in blood clotting. Clotting factors interact with each other as well as other enzymes in the blood, notably fibrin and thrombin, to form blood […]

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Hemoglobin – Definition, Levels, Information

Definition of Hemoglobin Hemoglobin is a combined protein within erythrocytes (red blood cells) that is crucial to the oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange. Two proteins come together to form hemoglobin: heme, a reddish pigment that contains iron, and globin. Hemoglobin bonds loosely with oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules, depending on which is in higher concentration. In the lungs, oxygen molecules have […]

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Prostate Cancer – Definition, Symptoms, Stages, Prognosis and Treatment

Definition of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that arises from the glandular tissue of the prostate gland, a walnut-size structure that encircles a man’s urethra at the base of the bladder. Prostate cancer is one of the hormone-driven cancers that appears to have some genetic foundations as it tends to run in families. Prostate cancer also strongly […]

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Digestive Enzymes – Benefits and Deficiency

Digestive Enzymes Definition Digestive Enzymes – specialized protein structures that help break down (hydrolyze) foods in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine to assist in absorbing nutrients from foods. Gastrointestinal structures produce dozens of digestive enzymes, which they secrete in various digestive juices. Amylase in saliva, for example, breaks down carbohydrates into their sugar components. Gastric juices combine […]

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Amino acids

Amino Acids Definition Proteins contained in nutrients and human organism. Dietary supplements help organism to improve physical performance. Every cell in our body needs amino acids. Proteins split out of nutrients into separate amino acids in alimentary tract. These amino acids gather again to create proteins human body needs. Two types of amino acids exist: […]

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Angiogenesis Inhibitor Drugs – Definition and Information

Definition of Angiogenesis Inhibitor Drugs Substances that stop tumors from developing new blood vessels to support their survival. Numerous proteins and enzymes in the body function to encourage or suppress the growth of new blood vessels. Cancerous tumors are among the tissues that produce proteins that foster new blood vessel growth; these blood vessels then […]

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CA-125 – Cancer Antigen (Tumor and Blood) – Definition

Definition of Tumor Maker CA-125 Cancer antigen 125, a protein often elevated in the blood circulation when certain cancers are growing in the body. The cells of the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes produce CA-125; consequently Cancer antigen 125 levels rise in ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterus), and cervical cancer. The most pronounced elevation occurs with ovarian cancer. However, numerous factors other than cancer […]

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Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) – Tumor Marker

Definition of Carcinoembryonic Antigen A protein present in the blood circulation with certain types of cancer. In this regard, Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serves as a tumor marker. The cancers associated with elevated blood CEA levels are carcinomas of the colon and rectum (colorectal cancer), pancreas, stomach, breast, and lung. The developing fetus also produces CEA, as […]

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Tumor suppressor genes – definition and types

Definition of Tumor Suppressor Gene Genes that stop cell growth, preventing tumor development. In health, tumor suppressor genes direct the production of proteins to block cell division when there are abnormalities in the cell, such as DNA damage. When mutated, tumor suppressor genes lose the ability to influence cell division. Cells may then proliferate without […]

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