Alport’s Syndrome – Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Alport’s Syndrome Alport’s Syndrome – An inherited genetic disorder in which one, two, or three mutations occur in the gene that encodes type IV collagen formations, also called basement membranes. The mutations affect up to three of the six protein chains (alpha-3, alpha-4, and alpha-5) that make up type IV collagen, which is […]

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Glomerulosclerosis – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Definition of Glomerulosclerosis Glomerulosclerosis – the formation of scar tissue (fibrosis) within the glomeruli, the coiled capillary networks within the nephrons of the kidneys. The most common presentation of glomerulosclerosis is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in which the fibrosis is scattered throughout the glomeruli, affecting only parts of the glomerulus in various nephrons. The damage permanently blocks the […]

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Nocturia – Definition, Causes and Tretament

Definition of Nocturia and Causes Nocturia – the need to get up from nighttime sleep to urinate. It is a significant cause of sleep disorders though has numerous potential causes. Nocturia becomes more common with increasing age in both women and men, sometimes simply as a consequence of normal agerelated changes that occur in the […]

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Vesicoureteral Reflux – Grade, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Vesicoureteral Reflux Vesicoureteral Reflux – a condition in which urine backflows from the bladder into the ureters toward the kidneys. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from congenital anomalies in the structure of the ureters, such as short ureters or ureters that enter the bladder wall in an unusual location or at an unusual angle. Normally […]

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Anuria – Definition and Information

Definition of Anuria Anuria – The failure to produce urine. Numerous circumstances can result in anuria, from severe dehydration and severe hypotension (low blood pressure) to end-stage renal disease (esrd) and renal failure. Anuria requires prompt medical evaluation to determine and remedy the underlying cause. Without such correction, waste byproducts accumulate to toxic levels and the body cannot continue to function. […]

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Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome – Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome – renal failure that occurs as a rare complication in children after infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7 acquired from contaminated food. E. coli O157:H7 causes hemorrhagic enteritis, itself a life-threatening infection. Hemolytic uremic syndrome occurs when the toxins the E. coli O157:H7 release enter the bloodstream. The […]

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Oliguria (Low Urine Production) – Definition and Information

Definition of Oliguria Oliguria is significantly reduced urine production that occurs as a consequence of renal failure, dehydration, hemorrhage (massive blood loss), or shock. Normal adult urinary output is 1500 milliliters to 3000 milliliters per day. In oliguria urinary output is 500 ml per day or less. Oliguria indicates that the kidneys are not receiving enough blood […]

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Wilms’s Tumor – Symptoms, Treatment and Prognosis

Definition of Wilms’s Tumor Wilms’s Tumor – a malignant (cancerous) growth in the kidney. Wilms’s tumor, also called nephroblastoma, nearly always affects children under age six. Though relatively rare, with doctors diagnosing about 500 children a year in the United States with this form of kidney cancer, Wilms’s tumor is the most common cancer of the […]

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Bladder Catheterization – Definition and Information

Definition of Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization – The insertion of a narrow, flexible tube into the bladder through the urethra to drain urine from the body. Bladder catheterization may be necessary to collect an uncontaminated (sterile) urine sample or to drain urine from the bladder. The catheter placement may be short term, such as after […]

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Hepatorenal Failure – Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Hepatorenal Failure Hepatorenal Failure – The progressive failure of the kidneys in people who have chronic liver failure. Doctors do not know what causes hepatorenal failure, also called hepatorenal syndrome, to develop though they do know the blood supply to the kidneys becomes suddenly and severely restricted. Not enough blood flows through the kidneys […]

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