Nephrotoxins – Definition and Information

Definition of Nephrotoxins / Nephrotoxic Nephrotoxins – Substances such as medications or environmental chemicals that damage the glomeruli and the tubules within the nephrons of the kidneys. Among those most commonly associated with altered kidney function and renal failure are Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic; exposure to these metals is most often occupational Nonsteroidal […]

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Renal Dialysis – Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis

Definition of Renal Dialysis Renal Dialysis – procedures to filter toxins from the blood when the kidneys are unable to perform this function. Dialysis can be short term or long term. Though in theory renal dialysis could sustain life indefinitely, in practice most people experience a steady decline of overall health with long-term dialysis because […]

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Urinary Diversion – Urostomy – Continent and Incontinent

Definition of Urinary Diversion Urinary Diversion – a surgical procedure to create a method for the storage and passage of urine from the body after cystectomy (surgical removal of the bladder). Though most often necessary following cystectomy to treat bladder cancer or invasive cancer of the pelvic region, urinary diversion may be necessary after traumatic injury to the […]

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Aging, urinary system changes that occur with

What is this Article About? At birth the structures of the urinary system are fully developed and function under the automatic control of the nervous system. The newborn’s kidneys filter blood and make urine. The bladder collects the urine and, when it fills to a point that triggers the micturition reflex, it empties to drain […]

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Bladder Catheterization – Definition and Information

Definition of Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization – The insertion of a narrow, flexible tube into the bladder through the urethra to drain urine from the body. Bladder catheterization may be necessary to collect an uncontaminated (sterile) urine sample or to drain urine from the bladder. The catheter placement may be short term, such as after […]

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Cystoscopy – Endoscopic Procedure – Definition

Definition of Cystoscopy Procedure Cystoscopy – An endoscopic procedure for visualizing the interior of the bladder. The cystoscope is a narrow tube with a tiny light and camera on the tip. Cystoscopy requires no preparation or recovery time and takes place in an outpatient surgery setting under sterile procedures. The urologist anesthetizes the urethra, then inserts the […]

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Cystourethrogram – Diagnostic Imaging Procedure – Definition

Definition of Cystourethrogram Cystourethrogram – A diagnostic imaging procedure that shows the flow of urine from the bladder through the urethra. The radiologist instills a radio-opaque solution (contrast medium) into the bladder through a catheter, then takes a series of X-rays as the solution fills the bladder and urethra. The radio-opaque solution makes these soft […]

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Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) – Definition

Definition of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) ESWL – a therapeutic procedure in which a machine called a lithotriptor generates shock waves that cause calcifications within the urinary tract, commonly called kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) or bladder stones (urolithiasis), to break apart into smaller fragments the URINE can carry out of the body. Lithotripsy became available […]

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Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) – Definition and Information

Definition of Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) – A diagnostic imaging procedure to evaluate the flow of blood and urine through the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. IVP requires moderate preparation that typically includes taking a laxative the night before the scheduled procedure to empty the intestines so the IVP provides clear visualization of the […]

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Kegel Exercises – In Women and Men

Definition of Kegel Exercises Kegel Exercises – a series of exercises to strengthen the pubococcygeal muscle, a figureeight double loop of muscle that forms the pelvic floor. Arnold H. Kegel, MD, an American gynecologist who practiced in Los Angeles, California, popularized the pelvic muscle exercises that now bear his name when he developed a biofeedback […]

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