Epispadias – Definition and Information

Epispadias and Definiton Epispadias – a random CONGENITAL ANOMALY in which the URETHRA forms incorrectly. Epispadias often occurs as an element within a constellation of congenital malformations involving the pelvic structures (including the pelvic bones) and the GENITALIA. In boys the urethra may exit the PENIS other than at the tip or appear as an open channel that runs […]

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Nephropathy – Diabetes, Hypertension – Definiton, Infotmation

Definition of Nephropathy Nephropathy – Progressive, irreversible damage to the KIDNEYS that occurs as a result of systemic health conditions or disease processes. Nephropathy is the main cause of END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE (ESRD) and the leading reason for KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION. Doctors diagnose more than 100,000 Americans with nephropathy every year. DIABETES and HYPERTENSION (high BLOOD PRESSURE) are the leading cause […]

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Urolithiasis (Blandder Stones) – Definition and Information

Definition of Urolithiasis (Bladder Stones) Urolithiasis – the formation of calcifications (also called calculi) in the BLADDER. Most bladder stones, like kidney stones, form of calcium in combination with oxalate (the most common combination), phosphate, or magnesium. Bladder stones are less common today than kidney stones (NEPHROLITHIASIS), though throughout recorded history bladder stones have been […]

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Fanconi’s Syndrome – Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Fanconi’s Syndrome Fanconi’s Syndrome – a dysfunction of the KIDNEYS in which the renal tubules do not function properly, resulting in a constellation of diverse symptoms. The renal tubule, a structure of the kidney’s filtering mechanism within the NEPHRON, filters many substances from the BLOOD to retain those the body needs and excrete those […]

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Nephrotic Syndrome – Definition, Symptoms and treatment

Definition of Nephrotic Syndrome, Symptoms and Treatment Nephrotic Syndrome – a constellation of symptoms that result as a consequence of conditions that damage the glomeruli within the renal nephrons. The damage allows excessive protein to move through the walls of the glomeruli into the filtrate. The tubules are unable to reabsorb the large protein molecules, […]

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Vesicoureteral Reflux – Grade, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Vesicoureteral Reflux Vesicoureteral Reflux – a condition in which URINE backflows from the BLADDER into the ureters toward the KIDNEYS. Vesicoureteral reflux may result from congenital anomalies in the structure of the ureters, such as short ureters or ureters that enter the bladder wall in an unusual location or at an unusual angle. Normally […]

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Glomerulonephritis – Acute / Chronic – Symptoms, Treatment

Definition of Glomerulonephritis Glomerulonephritis – INFLAMMATION of the glomeruli within the nephrons of the KIDNEYS. The glomerulus is the coiled capillary network through which BLOOD circulates for filtration. Glomerulonephritis, also called glomerular disease, may be acute (come on suddenly) or chronic (develop slowly over time). Acute glomerulonephritis is often a temporary condition that improves with treatment and causes minimal or […]

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Neurogenic Bladder – Denitfion, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Neurogenic Bladder Neurogenic Bladder – a condition in which the nerves that control the bladder do not work properly, allowing the bladder to be underactive (hypotonic) or overactive (spastic). Damage may occur to the spinal cord and spinal nerves, brain, or peripheral nerves that serve the bladder. Conditions that can cause such damage include […]

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Wilms’s Tumor – Symptoms, Treatment and Prognosis

Definition of Wilms’s Tumor Wilms’s Tumor – a malignant (cancerous) growth in the kidney. Wilms’s tumor, also called nephroblastoma, nearly always affects children under age six. Though relatively rare, with doctors diagnosing about 500 children a year in the United States with this form of kidney cancer, Wilms’s tumor is the most common cancer of the […]

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Glomerulosclerosis – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Definition of Glomerulosclerosis Glomerulosclerosis – the formation of SCAR tissue (fibrosis) within the glomeruli, the coiled capillary networks within the nephrons of the KIDNEYS. The most common presentation of glomerulosclerosis is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in which the fibrosis is scattered throughout the glomeruli, affecting only parts of the GLOMERULUS in various nephrons. The damage permanently blocks the […]

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