Hypospadias – Definition, Treatment and Information

Definition of Hypospadias Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly in which the urethra is shorter than normal and exits along the underside of the penis in a boy or into the vagina in a girl. Though uncommon overall, hypospadias is very rare in girls. In boys, chordee (severely curved penis) often accompanies hypospadias. Treatment The preferred treatment is surgery to extend the urethra to […]

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Urinary Incontinence – Diagnosis, Causes and Treatment

Definition of Urinary Incontinence and Types Urinary Incontinence – the involuntary leakage of urine from the urethra. Health experts estimate that as many as 12 million Americans experience some degree of urinary incontinence, which becomes increasingly common with advancing age. There are several types of urinary continence. They include stress incontinence, in which urine leaks […]

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Dysuria – Definition

Definition of Dysuria Pain, discomfort, or burning with urination. Dysuria may be primarily external (occur with the passing of urine through the urethra) or internal (felt as discomfort, pressure, or pain within the lower pelvis). Dysuria is most commonly a symptom of cystitis (inflammation or infection of the bladder and urethra), though it occurs as a […]

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Minimal Change Disease – Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Minimal Change Disease Minimal Change Disease – a disorder of kidney function in which the structure of the kidneys, notably the nephrons, appears normal with regular (light) microscope examination though slightly abnormal with electron microscope examination. Minimal change disease is primarily a condition of childhood (usually in children under age six) and seldom occurs […]

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Urinary Retention – Definition, Causes and Treatment

Definition of Urinary Retention Urinary Retention – the inability to completely empty urine from the bladder with urination. Because urinary retention presents a risk for bacterial urinary tract infection (uti) or nephritis (infection of the kidneys), it is important to find and treat its cause. Causes The most common cause is an obstruction that blocks or narrows the […]

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End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) – Definition and Information

Definition of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) End-Stage Renal Disease – a condition of permanent renal failure in which the kidneys can no longer function to filter wastes from the blood. People who have ESRD require ongoing renal dialysis and may be appropriate candidates for kidney transplantation. Information Diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and glomerulonephritis are the most common causes of ESRD in the United States. About 300,000 […]

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Nephritis – Bacterial, Interstitial, Lupus, Hereditary

Defnition of Nephritis Nephritis – inflammation of the kidney. The most common causes of nephritis are bacterial infection, which generally cause acute (sudden onset) nephritis, and autoimmune disorders, which tend to cause chronic or recurrent inflammation. Nephritis can be acute (come on suddenly), chronic (long-term), or recurrent (repeated episodes of acute nephritis). Chronic nephritis can lead […]

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Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) – Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Urinary Tract Infection – a bacterial infection of the bladder and urethra. The most common bacterial culprit is Escherichia coli, which is normally present in the gastrointestinal tract. Other bacteria may also cause UTI. Typically UTI, commonly called bladder infection, refers to infection that remains in the bladder and urethra. […]

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Enuresis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Enuresis Enuresis – an inability to hold the urine, particularly at night (nocturnal enuresis). A common term for enuresis is bedwetting. Enuresis is primarily a condition of childhood though may persist into adulthood, depending on the cause and treatment efforts. About 85 percent of children are developmentally mature enough to master voluntary control […]

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Nephrolithiasis Kidney Stones – Definiton and Information

Definition of Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the formation of calcifications (also called calculi) in the kidneys, usually called kidney stones. Kidney stones are common, with about 1 in 10 adults in the United States likely to have at least one over the course of adulthood. Some people pass kidney stones with little discomfort and may not […]

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