Hyperoxaluria – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Diet

Definition of Hyperoxaluria Hyperoxaluria – excessive oxalate excretion in the urine. Oxalate is a natural chemical that enters the body through dietary sources such as vegetables, fruits, and grains. The liver also metabolizes oxalate. Researchers do not know what benefits the body derives from oxalate. However, in the body oxalate attracts calcium, creating the insoluble […]

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Urethritis – In Woman/Men – Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Urethritis Urethritis – inflammation of an ureter. Infection, typically a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is the most common cause of urethritis though urethritis may occur as a result of inflammation or irritation from trauma such as occurs with bladder catheterization or cystoscopy. Traumatic urethritis improves rapidly when the source of the trauma is gone, often without […]

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Cystocele – symptoms, treatment, repair and surgery

Definition of Cystocele Cystocele is a hernialike condition in which a woman’s bladder bulges into her vagina. Cystocele is more common after menopause and in women who have given birth vaginally. It occurs as a consequence of weakened vaginal and pelvic muscles and ligaments that allow the supportive structures for the bladder to relax and the bladder itself to drop. […]

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Hypospadias – Definition, Treatment and Information

Definition of Hypospadias Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly in which the urethra is shorter than normal and exits along the underside of the penis in a boy or into the vagina in a girl. Though uncommon overall, hypospadias is very rare in girls. In boys, chordee (severely curved penis) often accompanies hypospadias. Treatment The preferred treatment is surgery to extend the urethra to […]

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Urinary Incontinence – Diagnosis, Causes and Treatment

Definition of Urinary Incontinence and Types Urinary Incontinence – the involuntary leakage of urine from the urethra. Health experts estimate that as many as 12 million Americans experience some degree of urinary incontinence, which becomes increasingly common with advancing age. There are several types of urinary continence. They include stress incontinence, in which urine leaks […]

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Dysuria – Definition

Definition of Dysuria Pain, discomfort, or burning with urination. Dysuria may be primarily external (occur with the passing of urine through the urethra) or internal (felt as discomfort, pressure, or pain within the lower pelvis). Dysuria is most commonly a symptom of cystitis (inflammation or infection of the bladder and urethra), though it occurs as a […]

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Minimal Change Disease – Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Minimal Change Disease Minimal Change Disease – a disorder of kidney function in which the structure of the kidneys, notably the nephrons, appears normal with regular (light) microscope examination though slightly abnormal with electron microscope examination. Minimal change disease is primarily a condition of childhood (usually in children under age six) and seldom occurs […]

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Urinary Retention – Definition, Causes and Treatment

Definition of Urinary Retention Urinary Retention – the inability to completely empty urine from the bladder with urination. Because urinary retention presents a risk for bacterial urinary tract infection (uti) or nephritis (infection of the kidneys), it is important to find and treat its cause. Causes The most common cause is an obstruction that blocks or narrows the […]

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End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) – Definition and Information

Definition of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) End-Stage Renal Disease – a condition of permanent renal failure in which the kidneys can no longer function to filter wastes from the blood. People who have ESRD require ongoing renal dialysis and may be appropriate candidates for kidney transplantation. Information Diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), and glomerulonephritis are the most common causes of ESRD in the United States. About 300,000 […]

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Nephritis – Bacterial, Interstitial, Lupus, Hereditary

Defnition of Nephritis Nephritis – inflammation of the kidney. The most common causes of nephritis are bacterial infection, which generally cause acute (sudden onset) nephritis, and autoimmune disorders, which tend to cause chronic or recurrent inflammation. Nephritis can be acute (come on suddenly), chronic (long-term), or recurrent (repeated episodes of acute nephritis). Chronic nephritis can lead […]

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