Cystinuria – definition, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment

Definition of Cystinuria Cystinuria is an inherited genetic disorder in which the KIDNEYS do not properly reabsorb amino acids collectively called cystine. The excessive excretion of cystine to the URINE causes crystalline calcifications, commonly called stones, to form in the kidneys, ureters, and BLADDER. Most people learn they have the GENE MUTATION, which is autosomal recessive, during analysis of the calcifications. […]

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Hypercalciuria – Definition and Causes

Definition of Hypercalciuria Hypercalciuria – excessive excretion of calcium in the URINE. About 80 percent of people who have kidney stones (NEPHROLITHIASIS) or BLADDER stones (UROLITHIASIS) have hypercalciuria. In most people the circumstance appears a combination of factors that typically include high dietary calcium intake, insufficient water consumption (resulting in low urine volume), and physical […]

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Urethral Stricture – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Definition of Urethral Stricture Urethral stricture – narrowing of the URETHRA, impeding the passage of URINE from the BLADDER to the outside of the body. Urethral stricture may be congenital (present at birth) or acquired such as through scarring resulting from repeated URETHRITIS, BLADDER CATHETERIZATION, and other irritations to the urethra. BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) and PROSTATITIS also can cause urethral […]

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Cystitis – inflammation of bladder – definition, symptoms and treatment

Definition of Cystitis Cystitis – INFLAMMATION of the BLADDER. The most common cause of cystitis is bacterial INFECTION, called URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI). Other pathogens, such as fungi (yeasts) and viruses, also can cause infectious cystitis. Nonpathogenic causes of cystitis include irritation of the lining of the bladder, which may occur with excessive consumption of irritating […]

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Hyperoxaluria – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Diet

Definition of Hyperoxaluria Hyperoxaluria – excessive OXALATE excretion in the URINE. Oxalate is a natural chemical that enters the body through dietary sources such as vegetables, fruits, and grains. The LIVER also metabolizes oxalate. Researchers do not know what benefits the body derives from oxalate. However, in the body oxalate attracts calcium, creating the insoluble […]

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Urethritis – In Woman/Men – Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Urethritis Urethritis – INFLAMMATION of an URETER. INFECTION, typically a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is the most common cause of urethritis though urethritis may occur as a result of inflammation or irritation from trauma such as occurs with BLADDER CATHETERIZATION or CYSTOSCOPY. Traumatic urethritis improves rapidly when the source of the trauma is gone, often without […]

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Cystocele – symptoms, treatment, repair and surgery

Definition of Cystocele Cystocele is a hernialike condition in which a woman’s BLADDER bulges into her VAGINA. Cystocele is more common after MENOPAUSE and in women who have given birth vaginally. It occurs as a consequence of weakened vaginal and pelvic muscles and ligaments that allow the supportive structures for the bladder to relax and the bladder itself to drop. […]

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Hypospadias – Definition, Treatment and Information

Definition of Hypospadias Hypospadias is a CONGENITAL ANOMALY in which the URETHRA is shorter than normal and exits along the underside of the PENIS in a boy or into the VAGINA in a girl. Though uncommon overall, hypospadias is very rare in girls. In boys, CHORDEE (severely curved penis) often accompanies hypospadias. Treatment The preferred treatment is surgery to extend the urethra to […]

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Urinary Incontinence – Diagnosis, Causes and Treatment

Definition of Urinary Incontinence and Types Urinary Incontinence – the involuntary leakage of URINE from the URETHRA. Health experts estimate that as many as 12 million Americans experience some degree of urinary incontinence, which becomes increasingly common with advancing age. There are several types of urinary continence. They include stress incontinence, in which urine leaks […]

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Dysuria – Definition

Definition of Dysuria Pain, discomfort, or burning with URINATION. Dysuria may be primarily external (occur with the passing of URINE through the URETHRA) or internal (felt as discomfort, pressure, or pain within the lower pelvis). Dysuria is most commonly a symptom of CYSTITIS (INFLAMMATION or INFECTION of the BLADDER and urethra), though it occurs as a […]

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