Anuria – Definition and Information

Definition of Anuria Anuria – The failure to produce urine. Numerous circumstances can result in anuria, from severe dehydration and severe hypotension (low blood pressure) to end-stage renal disease (esrd) and renal failure. Anuria requires prompt medical evaluation to determine and remedy the underlying cause. Without such correction, waste byproducts accumulate to toxic levels and the body cannot continue to function. […]

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Horseshoe Kidney – Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Horseshoe Kidney Horseshoe Kidney – a random congenital anomaly in which a band of tissue fuses the kidneys at the bottom, forming a shape resembling a horseshoe. The tissue band, called an isthmus, may be fibrous or the same tissue as the kidneys. In most people who have this anomaly, both kidneys are fully functional. However, […]

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Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA) – Definition and Information

Definition of Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA) Renal Tubular Acidosis – A genetic disorder in which the renal tubule within the nephron fails to release hydrogen ions into the filtrate. The consequence is a buildup of acid in the blood (serum acidosis) that causes various symptoms and imbalances among the body’s electrolytes. There are numerous forms of […]

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Bladder Exstrophy – Definition, Treatment, Repair

Definition of Bladder Exstrophy Bladder Exstrophy – an uncommon congenital anomalY in which the structures of the lower pelvis fail to form properly. As a consequence, the bladder protrudes outside the body and may be open or inverted. The urethra often fails to close as well. Bladder exstrophy is a random birth defect and is not a […]

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Hydronephrosis of Kidney – Definition, Symptoms, Treatment

Definition Hydronephrosis of the Kidney Hydronephrosis of the Kidney – a circumstance in which the renal pelvis, the portion of the kidney that collects urine for passage from the kidney via the ureter, dilates and enlarges. Hydronephrosis results from conditions of the kidney that slow or block the flow of urine, causing urine to back […]

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Uremia – Definition, Signs, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Uremia Uremia is a serious condition in which nitrogenbased toxins such as urea and creatinine, the primary waste products of metabolism, accumulate in the blood because the kidneys are unable to filter them out and pass them from the body via the urine. Uremia indicates renal failure. Urologists sometimes use the term azotemia to designate preclinical uremia-that is, […]

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Cystinuria – Definition, Diagnosis, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition of Cystinuria Cystinuria is an inherited genetic disorder in which the kidneys do not properly reabsorb amino acids collectively called cystine. The excessive excretion of cystine to the urine causes crystalline calcifications, commonly called stones, to form in the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. Most people learn they have the gene mutation, which is autosomal recessive, during analysis of the calcifications. […]

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Hypercalciuria – Definition and Causes

Definition of Hypercalciuria Hypercalciuria – excessive excretion of calcium in the urine. About 80 percent of people who have kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) or bladder stones (urolithiasis) have hypercalciuria. In most people the circumstance appears a combination of factors that typically include high dietary calcium intake, insufficient water consumption (resulting in low urine volume), and physical […]

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Urethral Stricture – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Definition of Urethral Stricture Urethral stricture – narrowing of the urethra, impeding the passage of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Urethral stricture may be congenital (present at birth) or acquired such as through scarring resulting from repeated urethritis, bladder catheterization, and other irritations to the urethra. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph) and prostatitis also can cause urethral […]

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Cystitis – inflammation of bladder – definition, symptoms and treatment

Definition of Cystitis Cystitis – inflammation of the bladder. The most common cause of cystitis is bacterial infection, called urinary tract infection (uti). Other pathogens, such as fungi (yeasts) and viruses, also can cause infectious cystitis. Nonpathogenic causes of cystitis include irritation of the lining of the bladder, which may occur with excessive consumption of irritating […]

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