Aging, Cardiovascular Changes That Occur With

Cardiovascular Changes With Advancing Age The most significant age-related changes in cardiovascular function occur at birth in both sexes and with menopause in women. Though changes in metabolism occur with aging that affect all body systems, researchers now believe cardiovascular health does not inherently decline simply as a function of aging. Diabetes, obesity, lack of physical exercise, […]

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Aging, Changes in The Blood and Lymph That Occur With

Blood and Lymph Changes With Advancing Age The blood undergoes a number of normal changes across the span of the lifetime. Blood cells have life spans ranging from a few hours to decades. The blood continually renews itself, producing millions of erythrocytes and thousands of leukocytes every hour. Blood cell production accelerates to meet unique health needs, such […]

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Aging, Pulmonary Changes That Occur With

What is this article about? The lungs and tracheobronchial structures undergo few but significant changes over the course of the lifespan. From moments after birth to near the end of life the lungs function continuously and consistently, bringing air into the body to deliver oxygen to the blood and carrying air out of the body […]

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Aging, Reproductive and Sexual Changes That Occur With

Reproductive and Sexual Changes With Advancing Age The reproductive system, male or female, is intact but immature at birth and remains immature until the onset of puberty around age 12. Researchers do not know what triggers the physiologic events that take place to initiate reproductive and sexual maturity. However, these events result in the development of secondary sexual […]

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Aging, urinary system changes that occur with

What is this Article About? At birth the structures of the urinary system are fully developed and function under the automatic control of the nervous system. The newborn’s kidneys filter blood and make urine. The bladder collects the urine and, when it fills to a point that triggers the micturition reflex, it empties to drain […]

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Aging, Musculoskeletal Changes That Occur With

Introduction The muscles, connective tissues, and skeleton arise from the mesoderm in the embryo at about two weeks of gestational age. The skeleton’s first form is as fibrous membranes (the bones of the cranium) or cartilage. Through a process called ossification or osteogenesis, cartilage cells (chondrocytes) convert to bone cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts). This early […]

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Aging, Integumentary Changes That Occur With

Integumentary Changes of aging Though the premise of aging tends to conjure images of wrinkles and gray hair or baldness, the skin, hair, and nails undergo numerous changes across the lifespan. Youth During infancy and early childhood, the integumentary structures are soft and the hair may be fine. By about age 10 or 11 years, the hormonal shifts of puberty are under way. Isolated pimples […]

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Aging, Effects on Drug Metabolism and Drug Response

Drug Response With Advancing Age Aging, Effects on Drug Metabolism and Drug Response – Many drugs have different therapeutic effects as well as potential adverse drug reactions, depending on a person’s age. The very young and the very old often have limited liver function, which affects the ways in which the liver metabolizes drugs, resulting in lower […]

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Aging, Gastrointestinal Changes That Occur With

Gastrointestinal Changes of Aging The organs and structures of the gastrointestinal system undergo numerous changes as an individual grows older. At birth, the infant’s mouth supports sucking and swallowing liquid nourishment. With the eruption of teeth and the elongation of the head, developmental changes that occur in early childhood, the oral cavity shifts to support chewing […]

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Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)

Definition of ARMD Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) is progressive condition that results in the gradual deterioration of the macula, the portion of the retina that provides the ability to see fine detail, and loss of vision from the center of the field of vision. ARMD is the leading cause of vision impairment, resulting in functional limitations and […]

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